United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

Targets and Indicators



By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements


Forest area as a proportion of total land area


Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem type



By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally


Progress towards sustainable forest management



By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world


Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area



By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development


Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity


Mountain Green Cover Index



Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species


Red List Index



Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed


Number of countries that have adopted legislative, administrative and policy frameworks to ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits



Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products


Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked



By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species


Proportion of countries adopting relevant national legislation and adequately resourcing the prevention or control of invasive alien species



By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts


(a) Number of countries that have established national targets in accordance with or similar to Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 in their national biodiversity strategy and action plans and the progress reported towards these targets; and (b) integration of biodiversity into national accounting and reporting systems, defined as implementation of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting



Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems


(a) Official development assistance on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; and (b) revenue generated and finance mobilized from biodiversity-relevant economic instruments



Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation


(a) Official development assistance on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; and (b) revenue generated and finance mobilized from biodiversity-relevant economic instruments



Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities


Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked

Progress and Info

Continued global deforestation, land and ecosystem degradation, and biodiversity loss pose major risks to human survival and sustainable development. Even as efforts are made in the domain of sustainable forest and natural resource management, commitments and instruments designed to protect, restore and sustainably use forests and biodiversity need to be urgently implemented to ensure healthy, resilient societies.

The world’s forest area continues to decrease but at a slightly slower rate compared with previous decades. The proportion of forest area fell from 31.9 per cent of total land area in 2000 to 31.2 per cent of total land area in 2020. Despite the overall loss of forest, the world continues to progress towards sustainable forest management. Between 2010 and 2020, the share of forests under certification schemes, the proportion of forest within a protected area and the proportion of forests under a long-term management plan increased globally.

Safeguarding key biodiversity areas through the establishment of protected areas or other effective area-based conservation is an essential contribution towards Sustainable Development Goals 14 and 15. Globally, this coverage of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and mountain key biodiversity areas has increased from about one quarter of each site on average covered by protected areas 20 years ago to nearly half of each site covered in 2021.

Vegetation coverage of the world’s mountains remains roughly stable at approximately 73 per cent since 2015. Disaggregated data by mountain class shows that green cover tends to decrease with mountain elevation, evidencing the strong role of climate in mountain green cover patterns.

By February 2022, 129 countries had committed to setting their voluntary targets for achieving land degradation neutrality, and in 71 countries, Governments had already officially endorsed those targets. Overall, commitments to land restoration are estimated at 1 billion ha, out of which over 450 million ha are committed through land degradation neutrality targets.

The Red List Index shows continuing deterioration in terms of species extinction risk around the world, based on repeated assessments of the extinction risk of all amphibians, birds, mammals, corals and cycads, representing about 25,000 species in total. The index went from 0.80 in 2000 to 0.72 in 2022. The prevalence and rate of extinction risk are particularly severe in Central and Southern Asia, Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and small island developing States. COVID-19 pandemic impacts on species extinction risk are likely negative mainly because of reduced conservation capacity and resources, along with increased threats.

At the end of 2021, 68 countries had at least one legislative, administrative or policy measure in place to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in accordance with the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Furthermore, 79 countries reported measures in place to implement the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.

Nearly all countries (98 per cent) have adopted national legislation relevant t o the prevention or control of invasive alien species, although there is wide variation in the coverage of this legislation across sectors.

There has been a steady upward trend in the number of countries incorporating biodiversity values into national accounting and reporting systems. Most countries have established national targets in relation to Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020. However only about one third of countries are reporting that they are on track to reach or exceed their national targets. Despite progress, Target 2 was not met by 2020.

As of March 2022, 89 countries and territories had implemented the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) to make nature count in policies and build back better through accounts for natural resources and/or ecosystems. This number is unchanged from 2021. Four countries started compiling the newly adopted SEEA Ecosystem Accounting in 2021.

In 2021, a total of 234 biodiversity-relevant taxes are in force, spanning 62 countries. While these policy instruments provide incentives for sustainable consumption and production and thus to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity, they also generated revenue in the order of $8.9 billion per year (2017–2019 average).

In 2020, the official development assistance of members of the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in support of biodiversity was $7.2 billion, an increase of 3 per cent in real terms over 2019.


Source: Progress Towards Sustainable Development Goals- Report of the Secretary-General 

For more information, please, check: https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2022/