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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all


Related Goals

Targets and Indicators



By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services


Proportion of population with access to electricity


Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology



By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix


Renewable energy share in the total final energy consumption



By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency


Energy intensity measured in terms of primary energy and GDP



By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology


International financial flows to developing countries in support of clean energy research and development and renewable energy production, including in hybrid systems



By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support


Installed renewable energy-generating capacity in developing and developed countries (in watts per capita)

Progress and Info

In 2022, global electricity access declined for the first time in a decade, primarily due to disruptions from COVID-19 and the Ukraine conflict. Despite improvements in energy intensity and renewable energy growth, international financial flows for clean energy in developing countries remain insufficient. At the current rate, 660 million people will still lack electricity and 1.8 billion will not have access to clean cooking by 2030. To achieve universal access to energy by 2030, we need to expedite electrification efforts, boost investments in renewable energy, enhance energy efficiency, and establish supportive policies and regulatory frameworks.

Target 7.1: o In 2022, global electricity access remained at 91%, but the number without access increased by 10 million from 2021 to 685 million people. Factors such as COVID-19 and the Ukraine conflict disrupted progress. Projections suggest that by 2030, 660 million will still lack electricity. Sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 83% of deficit in 2022. However, Central and Southern Asia reduced their gap from 235 million in 2015 to 33 million in 2022. Annual progress slowed to 0.4% between 2020 and 2022, requiring a 1.08% increase until 2030 to meet the target.

o In 2022, around 74% of the world used clean fuels for cooking. Yet, about 2.1 billion still relied on polluting fuels and technologies such as charcoal, coal, crop waste, dung, kerosene, and wood. The global access deficit decreased from 36% to 26% since 2015. However, current trends suggest a 21% shortfall in achieving universal access by 2030, leaving 1.8 billion without access to clean cooking by 2030.

Target 7.2: In 2021 the global share of renewable sources in total final energy consumption stood at 18.7%. Excluding traditional use of biomass, the share of modern renewable sources rose gradually from 10% in 2015 to 12.5% in 2021. The electricity sector led the charge with renewables, contributing 28.2% to total final electricity consumption. However, insufficient progress in the heat and transport sectors underscores the need for stronger conservation measures and policy actions. Tripling world’s installed renewable energy generation agreed at the COP28 is an important step aligning with the SDG7.

Target 7.3: In 2021, the primary energy intensity improved by 0.8%, falling below both the 1.2% five-year average and the SDG 7.3 target of 2.6%. To meet the 2030 target, annual improvements must now average around 4%. The robust economic recovery in 2021 led to the largest annual rise in energy consumption in 50 years, exceeding 5%. This surge was driven by a shift towards energyintensive industries and the resurgence of other demand sectors after lockdowns were lifted.

Target 7.a: In 2022, international public financial flows supporting clean energy in developing countries rose to $15.4 billion, a 25% increase from 2021 but still half of the 2016 peak of $28.5 billion. However, in 2023, it was anticipated a decrease in global five-year average flows by $450 million. The decreasing trend in these flows may hinder SDG 7 achievement, especially for LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS.

Target 7.b: Installed renewable energy capacity is on the rise worldwide, reaching 424 watts per person globally in 2022. Developed nations averaged 1,073 watts per person, while developing countries averaged 293 watts per person. This represents an 8.5% increase from 2021, maintaining a steady compound annual growth rate of 8.1% over five-year periods.