United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

Targets and Indicators



Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection


Total government revenue as a proportion of GDP, by source


Proportion of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes



Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries


Net official development assistance, total and to least developed countries, as a proportion of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee donors’ gross national income (GNI)



Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources


Foreign direct investments (FDI), official development assistance and South-South Cooperation as a proportion of total domestic budget


Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP



Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress


Debt service as a proportion of exports of goods and services



Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries


Number of countries that adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries



Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism


Number of science and/or technology cooperation agreements and programmes between countries, by type of cooperation


Fixed Internet broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by speed



Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed


Total amount of approved funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies



Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology


Proportion of individuals using the Internet



Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation


Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries



Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda


Worldwide weighted tariff-average



Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020


Developing countries’ and least developed countries’ share of global exports



Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access


Average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States



Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence


Macroeconomic Dashboard



Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development


Number of countries with mechanisms in place to enhance policy coherence of sustainable development



Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development Multi-stakeholder partnerships


Extent of use of country-owned results frameworks and planning tools by providers of development cooperation



Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries


Number of countries reporting progress in multi-stakeholder development effectiveness monitoring frameworks that support the achievement of the sustainable development goals



Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships Data, monitoring and accountability


Amount of United States dollars committed to public-private and civil society partnerships



By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts


Proportion of sustainable development indicators produced at the national level with full disaggregation when relevant to the target, in accordance with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics


Number of countries that have national statistical legislation that complies with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics


Number of countries with a national statistical plan that is fully funded and under implementation, by source of funding



By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries


Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries


Proportion of countries that (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration

Progress and Info

Strengthening global partnerships and enhancing the means of implementing the Goals have remained a challenge owing to scarce financial resources, trade tensions, technological obstacles and a lack of The pandemic is adding hardships to the implementation of the Goals. As COVID-19 continues to spread, global financial markets have experienced great losses and intense volatility, and more than

$100 billion in capital has flowed out of emerging markets since the outbreak, the largest outflow ever recorded. World trade is expected to plunge by between 13 and 32 per cent in 2020. Strengthening multilateralism and global partnerships is more important than ever before. The global nature of the pandemic requires the participation of all governments, the private sector, civil society organizations and people throughout the world.


Net ODA flows totalled $147 billion in 2019, nearly the same level as in 2018, but with an increased share going to the neediest countries. Bilateral ODA to lea st developed countries rose by 3 per cent in real terms since 2018, with aid to Africa rising by 1 per cent, but humanitarian aid fell by 3 per

Global foreign direct investment (FDI) flows continued to slide, falling by 13 per cent, from a revised $1.5 trillion in 2017 to $1.3 trillion in The decline, the third consecutive annual decrease in FDI, was mainly a result of large repatriations of accumulated foreign earnings by multinational enterprises following tax reforms introduced at the end of 2017. It is projected that the pandemic may cause global FDI to shrink by 30 to 40 per cent in the period 2020 –2022.

Remittance flows to lower-middle-income countries are estimated to have reached

$554 billion in 2019, exceeding official aid by a factor of three since the mid-1990s. In 2019, remittances overtook FDI flows to lower-middle-income countries, according to estimates. However, growth in remittance flows slowed to 4.7 per cent in 2019, compared with a robust 8.6 per cent in 2018. Global remittances are projected to fall to

$445 billion, or by 20 per cent, in 2020 owing to the pandemic.

Globally, government revenue accounted for approximately 30 per cent of GDP in 2018, remaining stable compared with previous years, but with wide variation among countries. The average overall tax burden (revenue in the form of taxes) was 25 per cent of GDP among advanced economies and 17 per cent of GDP among emerging markets and developing economies. The overall average of the proportion of government expenditure funded by taxes was about 65 per cent among advanced economies and 60 per cent among emerging market

Information and communications technology

More than half of the world’s population is now At the end of 2019, 53.6 per cent of individuals, or 4.1 billion persons, were using the Internet, ranging from only 20 per cent in Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand) and 26 per cent in sub-Saharan African to 84 per cent in Europe and Northern America and 87 per cent in Australia and New Zealand.

Fixed broadband subscriptions are increasing Globally, there were nearly 15 fixed broadband subscriptions for every 100 inhabitants in 2019, ranging from 33.6 in developed countries to only 11.2 in developing countries. In least developed countries, owing to the high cost and lack of infrastructure, there were nearly no fixed broadband connections. From a health, economic and social perspective, this digital divide is costing developing countries and their peo ples dearly during the pandemic.


Total ODA for capacity-building and national planning stood at $33.5 billion in 2017, representing 14 per cent of total sector allocable aid, stable since The main sectors assisted were public administration, energy and finance, which received a total of $13.0 billion.


Trade-weighted tariffs worldwide declined, from 2 per cent in 2017 to an average of 2.1 per cent in 2018.

The share of exports of least developed countries in global merchandise trade remained marginal, at just over 1 per cent in Growth in global exports of least developed countries stagnated over the past decade, missing the target of doubling the share of global exports of least developed countries by 2020 from 2011. In 2018, least developed countries recorded significant year-on-year growth in services exports, reaching a global share of 0.8 per cent. The share of global services exports of developing regions has flattened in past years, amounting to a share of 30 per cent at the end of 2018.

Data, monitoring and accountability

In 2019, 132 countries reported having national statistical legislation that was compliant with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics, up from 111 countries in

In 2019, 141 countries reported having implemented a national statistical plan, up from 129 countries in Although it had the second highest number of countries (36) implementing national statistical plans, sub-Saharan Africa had the lowest percentage of fully funded plans, with only 25 per cent of plans fully funded, compared with 95 per cent in Northern America and Europe.

In 2017, countries received $689 million in support from multilateral and bilateral donors for all areas of statistics, up from $623 million in However, that amount accounted for only 0.34 per cent of total ODA. International funding for data and statistics was at only around half the level at which it needed to be.

In the period 2014–2018, 147 countries had birth registration data that were at least 90 per cent complete, and 153 countries had death registration data that were at least 75 per cent In sub-Saharan Africa, 28 of 53 countries had birth registration data, and only 23 of 53 countries had death registration data.

Source: Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, Report of the Secretary-General, https://undocs.org/en/E/2020/57