Targets and Indicators
Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection
Total government revenue as a proportion of GDP, by source
Proportion of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes
Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries
Net official development assistance, total and to least developed countries, as a proportion of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee donors’ gross national income (GNI)
Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources
Foreign direct investments (FDI), official development assistance and South-South Cooperation as a proportion of total domestic budget
Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP
Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress
Debt service as a proportion of exports of goods and services
Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries
Number of countries that adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries
Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism
Number of science and/or technology cooperation agreements and programmes between countries, by type of cooperation
Fixed Internet broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by speed
Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed
Total amount of approved funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies
Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology
Proportion of individuals using the Internet
Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation
Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries
Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda
Worldwide weighted tariff-average
Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020
Developing countries’ and least developed countries’ share of global exports
Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access
Average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States
Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence
Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
Number of countries with mechanisms in place to enhance policy coherence of sustainable development
Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development Multi-stakeholder partnerships
Extent of use of country-owned results frameworks and planning tools by providers of development cooperation
Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries
Number of countries reporting progress in multi-stakeholder development effectiveness monitoring frameworks that support the achievement of the sustainable development goals
Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships Data, monitoring and accountability
Amount of United States dollars committed to public-private and civil society partnerships
By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
Proportion of sustainable development indicators produced at the national level with full disaggregation when relevant to the target, in accordance with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics
Number of countries that have national statistical legislation that complies with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics
Number of countries with a national statistical plan that is fully funded and under implementation, by source of funding
By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries
Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries
Proportion of countries that (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration
Progress and Info
Given that the multilateral and global partnerships were already challenged due to scarce financial resources, trade tensions, technological obstacles and lack of data, the pandemic has added an unprecedented shock to the global system. On top of this, foreign direct investment is under severe pressure and expected to drop by 40%. The numerous fiscal impacts of the pandemic are leading to debt distress in countries and limiting their fiscal and policy space for critical investments in recovery (including accessing vaccines), climate change and the SDGs, threatening to prolong recovery periods. The COVID-19 pandemic has put the spotlight on the crucial role of global partnerships. The inter-connected global economy requires a global response to ensure all countries, in particular developing countries, can address the compounding and parallel health, economic and environmental crises to recover better.
As of 2019, on average across approximately 130 economies, government revenue (taxes, social contributions, grants and other) accounts for approximately 33% of GDP. In addition, the average overall tax burden or revenue in the form of taxes, is 25% of GDP amongst advanced economies and 17% of GDP amongst emerging market and developing economies. The average proportion of government expenditure funded by taxes, amongst advanced economies is 67% amongst emerging market and 62% amongst developing economies.
Net ODA flows were $161 billion in 2020, an increase of 7% in real terms compared to 2019, reaching its highest level ever recorded. This is equivalent to 0.32% of DAC donors’ combined gross national income, up from 0.30% in 2019 but below a target of 0.7% ODA to GNI. The increase in ODA is in part due to DAC members’ support of an inclusive global recovery in light of the pandemic and in part due to an increase in bilateral sovereign lending by some loan-giving members.
Global flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) were under severe pressure in 2020. These vital resources are expected to have fallen by 40% from 2019 levels of $1.5 trillion to below $1 trillion for the first time since 2005, undoing the already lackluster growth in international investment over the past decade. International private sector investment flows to developing and transition economies in sectors relevant for the SDGs were also on course to fall by about one-third in 2020.
As the COVID-19 pandemic and economic crisis has continued, remittance flows to low and middle-income countries are estimated to have fallen by 7%, to $508 billion in 2020, to be followed by a further decline of 7.5%, to $470 billion in 2021.
By the end of 2020, the cumulative number of countries that have signed (or adopted) bilateral investment treaties (BITs) with LDCs and developing economies reached 121 and 183, respectively. The number of countries with BITs in force or implemented reached 102 and 173, respectively. The rate of new countries signing BITs has slowed in recent years after rapid growth in the 1990s.
Information and communications technology
As of 2019, just over half of the world’s population is online, with a large digital divide observed among regions. For instance, while 85% of the population was using the Internet in Europe and Northern America, only 20% were connected in LDCs.
While fixed-broadband subscriptions continue to increase, growth in subscriptions has slowed to 2.7% in 2020. In developed countries, there were more than 33 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, representing a high penetration rate, whereas in developing countries this number stood at 11.5 per 100 inhabitants. In LDCs, fixed networks are almost completely absent, with only 1.3 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants.
Total ODA for capacity building and national planning stood at $35.9 billion in 2019 and represented 14% of total sector allocable aid, stable since 2010. The main sectors assisted were energy policy, public administration and the financial sector, which received a total of $13.8 billion.
For the period 2017 to 2019, the worldwide weighted tariff average has remained stable at around 2%. Agriculture and clothing still have the highest tariff averages at around 6%, followed by textiles at around 4%. In 2019, small but relatively more significant improvements were recorded for two important sectors (textile and clothing) for LDCs and developing countries.
The share of LDC exports in global merchandise trade remained constant at 1% in 2019, and over the last decade has stagnated after significant improvements from 2000 to 2010. The target of doubling the share of global LDC exports by 2020 from 2011 (a 2% target) is unlikely to be achieved. For developing countries, the share in world merchandise exports has remained constant at around 45% since 2012. In 2019, LDCs share in world services exports stood at 0.8%. Developing countries’ share in world services exports has flattened since 2012, reaching 30.2% in 2019.
After reaching the lowest level of about 1.1% in 2011, the average tariff applied to imports in 2019 from developing and LDCs by developed countries has remained flat due to a lack of new commitments by developed countries. At the sectoral level, clothing and textile has remained stagnant but at the highest levels of about 8% and 5%, respectively, since 2011.
Data, monitoring and accountability
From 2016 to 2018, the extent to which development cooperation providers used country-owned results frameworks (CRF) and planning tools in the design and monitoring of new development projects has dropped from 64% to 62% on average. Multilateral providers use CRFs and planning tools in the design and monitoring to a larger extent than bilateral providers (66% compared to 57%).
Out of 114 countries providing and/or receiving development cooperation, less than half (56 countries) reported making overall progress towards strengthening multi–stakeholder partnerships for development for the achievement of the SDGs in 2018.
In 2020, 122 UN Member States reported having a national statistical legislation that was compliant with the UNFPOS. The shares of compliant UN Member States are over 40% for almost all regions and country groups, except for LDCs, which also had the fastest progress prior to 2020. Nevertheless, 122 compliant UN Member States in 2020 also translated to the year with the smallest progress made since 2015.
In 2020, 132 countries and territories reported implementing a national statistical plan, with 84 having fully funded plans. Only 4 out of 48 (8%) of LDCs reported having fully funded national statistical plans. Countries could face more difficulties in implementing and funding national statistical plans due to rescheduled and costly activities (such as census and household surveys) that were moved to 2021 because of the pandemic.
ODA for data and statistics has increased from $591 million in 2015 to $693 million in 2018. Almost every region received more support in 2017-2018 than in 2015-2016. Despite the progress made in the first four years, the trend of support to data and statistics may be reaching a bottleneck, as nowcasting analysis indicated no significant increase in 2019. While the need for sound data continues to escalate, including now to address and mitigate the impacts of the pandemic, many countries still lack the resources to produce them.
For the period 2015-2019, 146 countries have birth registration data that are at least 90% complete and 151 countries have death registration data that are at least 75% complete. This translates to about 60% of countries worldwide meeting both of these criteria. In sub-Saharan Africa, additional countries have birth and death registration data compared to the previous reporting period, increasing from 28 to 29 countries for birth registration and from 53 to 55 countries for death registration.
Source: Advance unedited copy of 2021 report of the Secretary-General on Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals