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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development

Targets and Indicators



Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection


Total government revenue as a proportion of GDP, by source


Proportion of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes



Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries


Net official development assistance, total and to least developed countries, as a proportion of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee donors’ gross national income (GNI)



Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources


Additional financial resources mobilized for developing countries from multiple sources 


Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP



Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress


Debt service as a proportion of exports of goods and services



Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries


Number of countries that adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for developing countries, including the least developed countries



Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism


 Fixed Internet broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by speed



Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed


Total amount of funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies



Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology


Proportion of individuals using the Internet



Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation


Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through North-South, South‑South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries



Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda


Worldwide weighted tariff-average



Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020


Developing countries’ and least developed countries’ share of global exports



Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access


Weighted average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States



Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence


Macroeconomic Dashboard



Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development


Number of countries with mechanisms in place to enhance policy coherence of sustainable development



Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development 


Extent of use of country-owned results frameworks and planning tools by providers of development cooperation



Enhance the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries, in particular developing countries


Number of countries reporting progress in multi-stakeholder development effectiveness monitoring frameworks that support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals



Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships 


Amount in United States dollars committed to public-private partnerships for infrastructure



By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts


Statistical capacity indicator for Sustainable Development Goal monitoring


Number of countries that have national statistical legislation that complies with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics


Number of countries with a national statistical plan that is fully funded and under implementation, by source of funding



By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries


Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries


Proportion of countries that (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration

Progress and Info

Progress towards achieving SDG17 has been mixed. On the one hand, there have been some advances in areas such as development aid, remittances flows, and access to technology. However, funding for development remains a major challenge, particularly in lowincome countries. Additionally, geopolitical tensions and the rise of nationalism in some parts of the world have made it more difficult to achieve international cooperation and coordination. Many developing countries are battling record inflation, rising interest rates and looming debt burdens, competing priorities, and limited fiscal space. A major surge in concerted action is needed to ensure developing countries have access to the financing and technologies needed to accelerate SDG implementation.

Based on 2021 data from approximately 130 economies, government revenue accounted for approximately 33% of GDP on average. In addition, the average overall tax burden or revenue in the form of taxes was 26% of GDP among advanced economies and 17% of GDP amongst emerging market and developing economies. The proportion of government expenditure funded by taxes has been stable within each region and worldwide has tended to converge. The overall average was about 66% among advanced economies and 60% among emerging market and developing economies in 2019, but sharply declined to about 52% in 2020 before rebounding to about 58% in 2021 for both groups of economies.

Net ODA flows amounted to $206 billion (current price in 2022, an increase of 15.3% in real terms compared to 2021). This is the highest growth rate in record, mainly due to domestic spending on refugees and aid for Ukraine. However, total ODA as a percentage of GNI continues to remain below the 0.7% target, reaching 0.36% in 2022 compared to 0.31% in 2021. Moreover, net bilateral ODA flows to countries in Africa totalled $34 billion in 2022, representing a drop of 7.4% in real terms compared to 2021.

The COVID-19 pandemic reshaped development spending, driving significant increases in financial resources mobilized for developing countries from multiple sources. Official sustainable development grants passed the $100 billion mark in 2020 and reached $118 billion in 2021. Official concessional loans amounted to $55 billion and official non-concessional loans to $107 billion in 2021, increases of 37% and 51%, respectively compared with 2019. But this is a long way from what is needed to enable developing countries to invest in the transitions needed to achieve the goals, estimated at some USD 3.9 trillion between now and 2030.

Debt levels of advanced and low- and middle-income countries reached record highs during the pandemic, increasing the likelihood of adverse consequences on economic growth. Total external debt of low- and middleincome countries increased by 5.6% in 2021 to $9 trillion, driven primarily by an increase in short-term debt. As of November 2022, 37 out of 69 of the world’s poorest countries were either at high risk or already in debt distress, while one in four middle-income countries, which host the majority of the extreme poor, were at high risk of fiscal crisis.

In 2022, an estimated 66% of the world’s population (5.3 billion) used the Internet, compared with 41% (3 billion) in 2015. Globally, 259 million more men than women used the Internet in 2022. There has been slower growth in the number of Internet users compared to the height of the pandemic, meaning that without increased investment in infrastructure and digital skills, the aim of connecting everyone by 2030 will remain elusive.

Fixed-broadband subscriptions continue to grow steadily, at an average annual growth rate of 6.7% over the last 10 years, reaching 18 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants in 2022 globally, up from 11 subscriptions in 2015. While fixed connections are common among households in upper-middleincome and high-income countries, they are nearly non-existent in low-income countries due to high prices and a lack of infrastructure.

The total trade of tracked Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) in 2020 was $2,364 billion, an increase of 5% since 2015.

The worldwide weighted tariff average was about 2% in 2020- unchanged since 2017, however, a decline from 2.6% in 2015. The latest figures from 2020 indicate that agriculture and clothing products continue to face the highest tariff rates at about 6%, followed by textiles at 4% and industrial products at 1.4%. The special tariff treatment that developed countries offer to developing countries, SIDs, and LDCs remains unchanged.

In 2021, the share of LDCs' exports in global merchandise trade amounted to 1.05% and has remained almost constant for the last three years. The target of doubling the share of LDCs’ exports by 2020, from its value of 1.03% in 2011, has therefore not been met. The share of all developing countries’ exports in global merchandise trade reached 44.4% in 2021, a share 3.1 percentage points larger than in 2016. It has increased almost continuously over the last five years.

In 2022, 147 countries and territories reported having national statistical legislation compliant with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics. In 2022, 156 countries and territories reported implementing a national statistical plan with 100 of the plans fully funded, compared to 81 countries implementing a national statistical plan with 17 fully funded in 2016. However, due to long-lasting impacts of the pandemic and limited human and financial capacity in strategic planning, many national statistical offices are implementing expired strategic plans for their statistical activities, which may not fully cover their evolving development objectives and emerging demands for data.

International funding for data and statistics amounted to $542 million in 2020, a decrease of over $100 million and $155 million from funding levels in 2019 and 2018, respectively. This rate is also a decline of 16% since 2015. While this decrease could be partially attributed to pandemic-induced funding and policy shifts, it could reflect the long-standing challenges in mainstreaming data activities, the limited pool of donors, and the low strategic priority of statistics.

Source: Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals: Towards a Rescue Plan for People and Planet - Report of the Secretary-General (Special Edition)