United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Targets and Indicators



Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries


Number of countries with sustainable consumption and production (SCP) national action plans or SCP mainstreamed as a priority or a target into national policies



By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources


Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP


Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP



By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses


Global food loss index



By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment


Number of parties to international multilateral environmental agreements on hazardous waste, and other chemicals that meet their commitments and obligations in transmitting information as required by each relevant agreement


Hazardous waste generated per capita and proportion of hazardous waste treated, by type of treatment



By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse


National recycling rate, tons of material recycled



Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle


Number of companies publishing sustainability reports



Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities


Number of countries implementing sustainable public procurement policies and action plans



By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature


Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development (including climate change education) are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment



Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production


Amount of support to developing countries on research and development for sustainable consumption and production and environmentally sound technologies



Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products


Number of sustainable tourism strategies or policies and implemented action plans with agreed monitoring and evaluation tools



Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities


Amount of fossil-fuel subsidies per unit of GDP (production and consumption) and as a proportion of total national expenditure on fossil fuels

Progress and Info

Worldwide consumption and production, a driving force of the global economy, rely on the use of the natural environment and resources in a model that continues to lead to destructive impacts on the planet. The pandemic offers countries an opportunity to build a recovery plan that will reverse current trends and change consumption and production patterns towards a sustainable future.

As at 2019, 79 countries and the European Union reported on at least one national policy instrument that contributed to sustainable consumption and production in their efforts towards the implementation of the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns. 

Global domestic material consumption per capita rose by 7 per cent, from 10.8 metric tons per capita in 2010 to 11.7 metric tons in 2017, with increases in all regions except Northern America and Africa. However, domestic material consumption per capita in Europe and Northern America is still 40 per cent higher than the global average, indicating the need to enhance resource efficiency and practices to reduce consumption in the future.  

The global material footprint rose, from 73.2 billion metric tons in 2010 to 85.9 billion metric tons in 2017, a 17.4 per cent increase since 2010 and a 66.5 per cent increase from 2000. The world’s reliance on natural resources continued to accelerate in the past two decades.

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer has been universally ratified by 198 parties, and, as a result of its implementation, the overall abundance of ozone-depleting substances in the atmosphere has decreased over the past two decades, with projections to return to 1980 values in the 2030s for northern hemisphere mid-latitude ozone.

From 2010 to 2019, global e-waste generation grew continuously, from 5.3 kg per capita to 7.3 kg per capita, while the environmentally sound recycling of e‑waste increased at a slower pace, from 0.8 kg per capita to 1.3 kg per capita.

Global fossil fuel subsidies amounted to more than $400 billion in 2018. The continued prevalence of such subsidies, more than double the estimated subsidies for renewables, adversely affects the task of achieving an early peak in global carbon dioxide emissions. 

Source: Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, Report of the Secretary-General, https://undocs.org/en/E/2020/57