United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

Targets and Indicators



Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere


Number of victims of intentional homicide per 100,000 population, by sex and age


Conflict-related deaths per 100,000 population, by sex, age and cause


Proportion of population subjected to physical, psychological or sexual violence in the previous 12 months


Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live



End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children


Proportion of children aged 1-17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month


Number of victims of human trafficking per 100,000 population, by sex, age and form of exploitation


Proportion of young women and men aged 18‑29 years who experienced sexual violence by age 18



Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all


Proportion of victims of violence in the previous 12 months who reported their victimization to competent authorities or other officially recognized conflict resolution mechanisms


Unsentenced detainees as a proportion of overall prison population



By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime


Total value of inward and outward illicit financial flows (in current United States dollars)


Proportion of seized, found or surrendered arms whose illicit origin or context has been traced or established by a competent authority in line with international instruments



Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms


Proportion of persons who had at least one contact with a public official and who paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials, during the previous 12 months


Proportion of businesses that had at least one contact with a public official and that paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials during the previous 12 months



Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels


Primary government expenditures as a proportion of original approved budget, by sector (or by budget codes or similar)


Proportion of the population satisfied with their last experience of public services



Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels


Proportions of positions (by sex, age, persons with disabilities and population groups) in public institutions (national and local legislatures, public service, and judiciary) compared to national distributions


Proportion of population who believe decision-making is inclusive and responsive, by sex, age, disability and population group



Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance


Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations



By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration


Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age



Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements


Number of verified cases of killing, kidnapping, enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention and torture of journalists, associated media personnel, trade unionists and human rights advocates in the previous 12 months


Number of countries that adopt and implement constitutional, statutory and/or policy guarantees for public access to information



Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime <br>


Existence of independent national human rights institutions in compliance with the Paris Principles



Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development


Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law

Progress and Info

Conflict, insecurity, weak institutions and limited access to justice remain a great threat to sustainable development. Millions of people have been deprived of their security, human rights and access to justice. In 2018, the number of people fleeing war, persecution and conflict exceeded 70 million, the highest level recorded by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in nearly 70 years. The pandemic is potentially leading to an increase in social unrest and violence, which would greatly undermine the world’s ability to meet the targets of Goal 16.

The global rate of homicide per 100,000 persons slowly declined, from 6.8 to 5.9 to 5.8 per cent in 2000, 2015 and 2018, respectively, corresponding to approximately 440,000 victims of homicide, 81 per cent of whom were men and 19 per cent of whom were women. Latin America and the Caribbean (33 per cent) and sub-Saharan Africa (36 per cent) accounted for more than two thirds of homicide victims globally.

Violent forms of discipline targeted towards children were widespread. In 69 countries (mostly low- and middle-income ones) with available data from 2012 to 2019, nearly 8 in 10 children 1 to 14 years of age were subjected to some form of psychological aggression and/or physical punishment at home in the previous month.

Sexual violence is one of the most unsettling violations of children’s rights. In slightly more than one in four countries with comparable data from 2012 to 2019 (45 countries), at least 5 per cent of women between 18 and 29 years of age reported experiencing sexual violence in childhood.

Data from 2016 to 2018 show that the proportion of prisoners held in detention without being sentenced for a crime is 31 per cent, the same level as in 2005. Significant increases over the past three years were recorded in Asia and Oceania.

Data from 38 countries over the past decade suggest that high-income countries have the lowest prevalence of bribery (an average of 3.7 per cent), while lower-income countries bear the heaviest bribery burden when accessing public services (22.3 per cent).

Through the implementation of birth registration with proof of legal identity, children’s rights can be protected and universal access to justice and social services can be enabled. However, based on data from 2010 to 2019, the births of around one in four children under 5 years of age were never officially recorded. Fewer than half (44 per cent) of all children in sub-Saharan Africa under 5 years of age had their births registered.

In 2019, the United Nations tracked 357 killings (a decrease from 476 in 2018) and 30 enforced disappearances of human rights defenders, journalists and trade unionists in 47 countries.

The number of countries with binding laws and policies giving individuals a right to obtain access to information held by public authorities (the right to information) has continued to rise, reaching 127 in 2019. At least 43 countries have adopted such guarantees in the past 10 years, 40 per cent of them in Africa.

In 2019, 40 per cent of countries had a national human rights institution that had successfully achieved compliance with the principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (the Paris Principles). Access to internationally recognized national human rights institutions, however, remains overdue in 78 countries, in particular in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Oceania and sub-Saharan Africa.

Source: Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, Report of the Secretary-General, https://undocs.org/en/E/2020/57