United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development
Goals
16

Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

Targets and Indicators

Target

16.1

Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere

16.1.1

Number of victims of intentional homicide per 100,000 population, by sex and age

16.1.2

Conflict-related deaths per 100,000 population, by sex, age and cause

16.1.3

Proportion of population subjected to physical, psychological or sexual violence in the previous 12 months

16.1.4

Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live

Target

16.2

End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children

16.2.1

Proportion of children aged 1-17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month

16.2.2

Number of victims of human trafficking per 100,000 population, by sex, age and form of exploitation

16.2.3

Proportion of young women and men aged 18‑29 years who experienced sexual violence by age 18

Target

16.3

Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all

16.3.1

Proportion of victims of violence in the previous 12 months who reported their victimization to competent authorities or other officially recognized conflict resolution mechanisms

16.3.2

Unsentenced detainees as a proportion of overall prison population

Target

16.4

By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime

16.4.1

Total value of inward and outward illicit financial flows (in current United States dollars)

16.4.2

Proportion of seized, found or surrendered arms whose illicit origin or context has been traced or established by a competent authority in line with international instruments

Target

16.5

Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms

16.5.1

Proportion of persons who had at least one contact with a public official and who paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials, during the previous 12 months

16.5.2

Proportion of businesses that had at least one contact with a public official and that paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials during the previous 12 months

Target

16.6

Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels

16.6.1

Primary government expenditures as a proportion of original approved budget, by sector (or by budget codes or similar)

16.6.2

Proportion of the population satisfied with their last experience of public services

Target

16.7

Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels

16.7.1

Proportions of positions (by sex, age, persons with disabilities and population groups) in public institutions (national and local legislatures, public service, and judiciary) compared to national distributions

16.7.2

Proportion of population who believe decision-making is inclusive and responsive, by sex, age, disability and population group

Target

16.8

Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance

16.8.1

Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations

Target

16.9

By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration

16.9.1

Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age

Target

16.10

Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements

16.10.1

Number of verified cases of killing, kidnapping, enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention and torture of journalists, associated media personnel, trade unionists and human rights advocates in the previous 12 months

16.10.2

Number of countries that adopt and implement constitutional, statutory and/or policy guarantees for public access to information

Target

16.a

Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime <br>

16.a.1

Existence of independent national human rights institutions in compliance with the Paris Principles

Target

16.b

Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development

16.b.1

Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law

Progress and Info

The world is still a long way off from achieving the goal of peaceful, just and inclusive societies. Millions of people are still living in fragile and conflict affected states. At the end of 2019, 79.5 million people had been forcibly displaced worldwide, translating to 1% of the global population. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed inequalities, discrimination and has tested, weakened and even led to shattered rights and protection systems in countries.

Globally, around 437,000 people were victims of homicide in 2019. Lethal violence is, however, slowly decreasing and homicide rates declined from 6.3 victims per 100,000 population in 2015 to 5.9 in 2019. Two-thirds of total homicide victims are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean, with the former region not yet showing visible signs of decline.

The UN recorded at least 69,053 civilian deaths in 12 of the world’s deadliest armed conflicts between 2018 and 2020. In 2020, 5 civilians per 100,000 population were killed; one in seven of those deaths was a woman or child.

Even before the COVID-19 outbreak, violence against children was widespread, affecting children regardless of wealth or social status. In 77 (mostly low- and middle-income) countries with available data from 2012 to 2020, 8 in 10 children aged one to 14 years of age were subjected to some form of psychological aggression and/or physical punishment at home in the previous month.

In 2018, for every 10 victims of human trafficking detected globally, about five were adult women and two were girls. About one third of the overall detected victims were children. About 50% of the detected victims are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation and 38% for forced labour. The sharp increase in unemployment rates brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to increase trafficking in persons.

Globally, in 2019, the proportion of prisoners held in detention without being sentenced for a crime remained high at 31% of the total prison population, with no significant change since 2000.

Data available from more than 120 countries and territories show that people living in low-income countries are most exposed to bribery. The average prevalence rate of bribery in low-income countries is 37.6%, while high-income countries have an average prevalence rate of 7.2%, based on the latest data available in the period 2011 to 2020.

Globally, almost one in six businesses face requests for bribe payments by public officials, based on establishment-level data from 145 countries surveyed during 2006-2020.

Globally, 31.1% of parliamentarians are aged 45 or under, up from 28.1% in 2018. Male parliamentarians remain predominant in the leadership positions of Speaker and committee chair.

Based on data from 2010-2020, the births of around one in four children under age 5 worldwide had never been officially recorded. Only 45% of all children under five in subSaharan Africa had their births registered.

In 2020, the UN tracked 331 killings of human rights defenders (an 18% increase from 2019) in 32 countries, and 19 enforced disappearances in 14 countries. Women comprised 13% of the victims killed, and 22% of those forcibly disappeared. Sixty-two journalists were killed in 2020, compared to 57 in 2019 (57 journalists), and 65% were killed in non-conflict countries.

As of February 2021, access to information laws have been adopted by 127 countries, however, implementation of these guarantees could be improved. The COVID-19 pandemic has slowed down the pace, with no countries passing such legal guarantees in 2020, and a number of countries temporarily suspending existing guarantees. Nevertheless, many countries attempted to make data available concerning virus infections, contracting of emergency equipment, and allocation of rescue packages and relief financing.

In 2020, the number of independently functioning national human rights institutions (NHRIs) in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe increased by 3, bringing the proportion of countries that had successfully achieved compliance with the Paris Principles up to 42%. However, progress has stalled in Latin America and the Caribbean, Oceania, Western Asia, Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, where no new independent NHRIs have been recognized or established since 2018.

Source: Advance unedited copy of 2021 report of the Secretary-General on Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals