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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Targets and Indicators



By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums


Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements or inadequate housing



By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons


Proportion of population that has convenient access to public transport, by sex, age and persons with disabilities



By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries


Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate


Proportion of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management that operate regularly and democratically



Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage


Total per capita expenditure on the preservation, protection and conservation of all cultural and natural heritage, by source of funding (public, private), type of heritage (cultural, natural) and level of government (national, regional, and local/municipal)



By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations


Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population


Direct economic loss attributed to disasters in relation to global domestic product (GDP)


(a) Damage to critical infrastructure and (b) number of disruptions to basic services, attributed to disasters



By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management


Proportion of municipal solid waste collected and managed in controlled facilities out of total municipal waste generated, by cities


Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g. PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted)



By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities


Average share of the built-up area of cities that is open space for public use for all, by sex, age and persons with disabilities


Proportion of persons victim of non-sexual or sexual harassment, by sex, age, disability status and place of occurrence, in the previous 12 months



Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning


Number of countries that have national urban policies or regional development plans that (a) respond to population dynamics; (b) ensure balanced territorial development; and (c) increase local fiscal space



By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels


Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030


Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies



Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

Progress and Info

The pandemic has caused major shifts in migration patterns, including huge movements of people in and out of urban areas. Furthermore, climate change and conflicts tend to have disproportionate impacts on cities. These factors mean that the world is far from achieving the goal of sustainable cities.  In many developing countries, slum populations have been growing, putting at risk the target of adequate housing for all by 2030. Since 2015, the number of countries with national disaster risk reduction strategies has more than doubled. To achieve SDG 11, efforts must focus on strengthening capacities for planning for urban development, improving access to public transportation and enhancing waste management. 

Target 11.1: As of 2022, nearly 1.1 billion people lived in slums or slum-like conditions in urban areas, with an additional 2 billion expected to live in slums or slum-like conditions over the next 30 years. The growing number of slum population is a manifestation of the housing crisis, a situation in many instances that has now been exacerbated by the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Target 11.2: According to 2022 data from 1507 cities in 126 countries, only 51.6% of the world’s urban population has convenient access to public transport, with considerable variations across regions.

Target 11.3: According to data compiled from 815 cities for the period 1990 - 2020, the physical expansion of cities globally was faster than the rates of population growth. For the 2000-2010 period, the average annual land consumption rate was 2.0%, while the population growth rate averaged 1.4%. These rates declined to 1.5% and 0.6% respectively for the period 2010-2020.

Target 11.6: In 2022, the global average municipal solid waste (MSW) collection rate in cities was at 82%, and the average MSW managed in controlled facilities in cities was 55%. The MSW collection rates in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania are less than 60%. Uncollected waste is the source of plastic pollution, GHG emissions, and sources of incubation for infections.

Target 11.7: Data for 2020 from 1,072 cities in 120 countries indicate that more than three-quarters of these cities have less than 20% of their area dedicated to open public spaces and streets, about half of the proportion recommended. On average, open public spaces account for a meagre 3.2% of urban land, about 4 times less than the share of land in streets. 

Target 11.a: According to a 2021 assessment on compliance of the 58 National Urban Policies, 55 (95%) fulfilled the first criterion on “responding to population dynamics”, 54 (93%) fulfilled the second criterion on “ensuring balanced territorial development” and only 26 (45%) met the third criterion on making considerations for “increased local fiscal space”, which calls for setting up more financing mechanisms for local implementation of sustainable urban development. 

Target 11.b: By the end of 2022, 102 countries reported having local governments with disaster risk reduction strategies, an increase from 51 countries in 2015.