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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Targets and Indicators



By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums


Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements or inadequate housing



By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons


Proportion of population that has convenient access to public transport, by sex, age and persons with disabilities



By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries


Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate


Proportion of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management that operate regularly and democratically



Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage


Total per capita expenditure on the preservation, protection and conservation of all cultural and natural heritage, by source of funding (public, private), type of heritage (cultural, natural) and level of government (national, regional, and local/municipal)



By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations


Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population


Direct economic loss attributed to disasters in relation to global domestic product (GDP)


(a) Damage to critical infrastructure and (b) number of disruptions to basic services, attributed to disasters



By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management


Proportion of municipal solid waste collected and managed in controlled facilities out of total municipal waste generated, by cities


Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g. PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted)



By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities


Average share of the built-up area of cities that is open space for public use for all, by sex, age and persons with disabilities


Proportion of persons victim of non-sexual or sexual harassment, by sex, age, disability status and place of occurrence, in the previous 12 months



Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning


Number of countries that have national urban policies or regional development plans that (a) respond to population dynamics; (b) ensure balanced territorial development; and (c) increase local fiscal space



By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels


Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030


Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies



Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

Progress and Info

More than half the world’s population currently reside in cities. However, cities are grappling with a multitude of complex issues, made more difficult by rising global urban poverty levels in the wake of COVID-19. From rising slum populations, insufficient public transport, city expansion outpacing population growth to threats to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services by disasters, it is essential that cities are equipped to adequately handle these challenges. As the world turns more urban, with nearly 70% of the global population projected to reside in cities by 2050, critical infrastructure, affordable housing, efficient transport and essential social services are crucial for creating resilient, sustainable cities for all.

Target 11.1: In 2022, 24.8% of the urban population lived in slums or slum-like conditions, slightly lower than 25% in 2015, but higher than 24.2% in 2020. The total number of slum dwellers was 1.12 billion in 2022, 130 million more than in 2015. Over 85% of slum dwellers were concentrated in Central and Southern Asia (334 million), Eastern and South-Eastern Asia (362 million), and subSaharan Africa (265 million). Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest percentage of urban population living in slums, at 53.6%. Projections suggest that sub-Saharan Africa will experience the greatest proportional increase in slum dwellers, with an additional 360 million expected by 2030. This emphasizes the urgent need for a comprehensive approach to address the urban housing crisis, including providing varied housing options and equitable access to basic services.

Target 11.2: Data collected in 2023 from 2,039 cities across 188 countries shows that 6 out of 10 urban residents globally have convenient public transport access, with notable gaps between developed and developing regions. In LDCs, only 4 out of 10 people have access, compared to 8 out of 10 in more developed regions. Urgent investments are needed to expand access, especially in impoverished urban areas in developed countries.

Target 11.3: Data from 1217 cities across 185 countries shows that cities are sprawling faster than they are densifying. Between 2000 and 2020, cities expanded up to 3.7 times faster than they densified. Globally, sprawl averaged 5.6% annually, while densification was only 1.5%. Despite a slight decline in sprawl rates from 2010 to 2020, they still exceeded densification rates, displacing ecologically valuable lands. Balancing people, prosperity, and the planet by 2030 requires concerted efforts to curb urban sprawl locally, sub-nationally, and nationally.

Target 11.5: On average, 104,049 critical infrastructure units and facilities were destroyed or damaged by disasters annually from 2015 to 2022. Furthermore, disasters disrupted over 1.6 million basic services, including educational and health services, each year.

Target 11.6: A comparison of air pollution five-year average before and after the development of the SDGs showed a significant decrease of 9% in fine particulate matter global levels and current alignment with the WHO Air Quality Guideline (AQG) Interim Target 1 value of 35 ug/m3.

Target 11.7: Data from 1,365 cities across 187 countries reveals that access to open public spaces is notably deficient in LDCs, where fewer than 3 in 10 people can conveniently reach such areas. Conversely, in high-performing regions like Australia and New Zealand, North America, and Europe, approximately 6 to 7 out of 10 urban residents enjoy convenient access to open public spaces, highlighting the prevalent global challenge.

Target 11.b: In 2023, local-level risk governance has improved in recent years, with 106 countries cumulatively reporting having local disaster risk reduction strategies in place and in line with national strategies. On average, 72% of the local governments in reporting countries have specified having local disaster risk reduction strategies.