United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation


Related Goals

Targets and Indicators



Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all


Proportion of the rural population who live within 2 km of an all-season road


Passenger and freight volumes, by mode of transport



Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries


Manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP and per capita


Manufacturing employment as a proportion of total employment



Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets


Proportion of small-scale industries in total industry value added


Proportion of small-scale industries with a loan or line of credit



By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities


COemission per unit of value added



Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending


Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP


Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants



Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States


Total official international support (official development assistance plus other official flows) to infrastructure



Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities


Proportion of medium and high-tech industry value added in total value added



Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020


Proportion of population covered by a mobile network, by technology

Progress and Info

The manufacturing industry exhibited a recovery from the pandemic in 2021, although the rebound has been uneven across countries, with stagnations in least developed countries. Almost one in three jobs in the manufacturing industry were negatively impacted during the pandemic. Higher-technology industries had a better performance and recovered faster, providing a strong example of how important technological innovation is for achieving Sustainable Development Goal 9.

In 2021, global manufacturing activity rose above the pre-pandemic level but the recovery remains incomplete and unequal. Manufacturing in least developed countries stagnated owing to subdued and volatile global demand and disruption to global trade, in addition to tighter domestic economic policies. Despite the pandemic disruptions, the global share of manufacturing value added in total GDP increased from 16.2 per cent in 2015 to 16.9 per cent in 2021. While manufacturing value added per capita in Europe and Northern America reached an all-time high of $5,006 in 2021, in least developed countries it decreased to $134.

Because of the pandemic, nearly one in three jobs in manufacturing supply chains globally are likely to have undergone termination, a reduction in working hours or payment or other worsened conditions. The share of manufacturing employment in total employment thus decreased significantly from 13.7 per cent in 2019 to 13.1 per cent in 2020.

Small industrial enterprises are more vulnerable than larger firms to economic downturns owing to their limited financial resources and greater supply chain dependencies. Although governmental support plays a key role in supporting small enterprises in their efforts to survive and thrive during and after the crisis, such a stimulus is hardly available in low-income countries. Based on survey data from 2006–2020, only 15.7 per cent of small-scale industries in sub-Saharan Africa received loans or lines of credit compared with 44.2 per cent in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Global CO2 emissions declined by 5.8 per cent in 2020 or by almost 2 billion tons, the largest decline since 1990 and almost five times greater than the 2009 decline which followed the global financial crisis. Despite the 2020 decline, global energy-related CO2 emissions remained at 31.5 billion tons, which contributed to the attainment by CO2 of its highest average annual concentration in the atmosphere. In 2021, global energy-related CO2 emissions rose by 6.0 per cent to 36.3 billion metric tons, their highest ever level, as demand for coal, oil and gas rebounded with the economy.

Most of the industries using medium and high technology have reached pre-pandemic levels, except for motor vehicles and other transport equipment. The production of motor vehicles is facing larger challenges worldwide owing to disruptions of the supply chain for resources and intermediate goods. However, the share of medium- and high-technology manufacturing in total manufacturing was only 21.4 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa and 10.5 per cent in least developed countries, compared with 47.7 per cent in Europe and Northern America in 2019.

In most developing countries, mobile broadband (third generation (3G) or above) is the main means – and often the only means – of connecting to the Internet. Currently 95 per cent of the world population has access to a mobile broadband network. Between 2015 and 2021, 4G network coverage doubled to reach 88 per cent of the world’s population. However, the coverage gap remains significant in least developed countries and landlocked developing countries, where 17 per cent of the population remains without any access to a mobile broadband network.

Source: Progress Towards Sustainable Development Goals- Report of the Secretary-General 

For more information, please, check: https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2022/