United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation


Related Goals

Targets and Indicators



Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all


Proportion of the rural population who live within 2 km of an all-season road


Passenger and freight volumes, by mode of transport



Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries


Manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP and per capita


Manufacturing employment as a proportion of total employment



Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets


Proportion of small-scale industries in total industry value added


Proportion of small-scale industries with a loan or line of credit



By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities


CO2 emission per unit of value added



Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending


Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP


Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants



Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States


Total official international support (official development assistance plus other official flows) to infrastructure



Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities


Proportion of medium and high-tech industry value added in total value added



Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020


Proportion of population covered by a mobile network, by technology

Progress and Info

Global growth in manufacturing had already steadily declined even before the outbreak. The pandemic is hitting manufacturing industries hard and causing disruptions in global value chains and the supply of products.

The air transport sector has been hit the hardest by the pandemic. It is forecasted that airlines will have 1.5 billion fewer international air travellers in 2020 and that international seat capacity could fall by almost three quarters, resulting in a $273 billion loss, compared with previously expected gross operating revenues.

In 2019, manufacturing value added grew only 1.5 per cent since 2018, the slowest year-on-year growth rate since 2012, influenced primarily by tariff and trade tensions affecting all regions. Manufacturing activities are at high risk of disruption during the current crisis, which will have an impact on the sector’s employment levels.

The share of manufacturing in GDP in least developed countries increased, from 10 per cent in 2010 to 12.4 per cent in 2019, but the growth rate was too slow for the target, doubling the industry’s share in GDP by 2030, to be reached.

In 2019, 14 per cent of the world’s workers were employed in manufacturing activities, a figure that has not changed much since 2000. The share of manufacturing employment was the largest in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia (18 per cent) and the smallest in sub-Saharan Africa (6 per cent).

According to surveys covering the period from 2010 to the present, in developing countries, 34 per cent of small-scale industries benefit from loans or lines of credit, which enable them to integrate into local and global value chains. However, only 22 per cent of small-scale industries in sub-Saharan Africa received loans or lines of credit, compared with 48 per cent in Latin America and the Caribbean.

After three years of stability, global carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion started to rise again in 2017, reaching 32.8 billion tons, underpinned by economic growth and a slowdown in efficiency improvements. However, the intensity of global carbon dioxide emissions has declined by nearly one quarter since 2000, showing a general decoupling of carbon dioxide emissions from GDP growth. The same trend was visible in manufacturing industries after 2010, with global manufacturing intensity falling at an average annual rate of 3 per cent until 2017.

Globally, investment in research and development as a proportion of GDP increased, from 1.5 per cent in 2000 to 1.7 per cent in 2015, and remained almost unchanged in 2017, but was only less than 1 per cent in developing regions.

The number of researchers per 1 million inhabitants increased, from 1,018 in 2010 to 1,198 in 2017, ranging widely, from 3,707 in Europe and Northern America to only 99 in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, women represented only 30 per cent of global researchers.

Total official flows for economic infrastructure in developing countries reached $61 billion in 2018, an increase of 32.6 per cent in real terms from 2010. The main sectors assisted were transport ($22.8 billion) and energy ($20.3 billion).

The share of medium-high and high-technology goods in world manufacturing production reached nearly 45 per cent in 2017. Medium-high and high-technology products continued to dominate manufacturing production in developed regions, reaching 49 per cent in 2017, compared with 9 per cent in least developed countries.

Nearly the entire world population lives in an area covered by a mobile network. It is estimated that, in 2019, 96.5 per cent thereof was covered by at least a 2G network, with 81.8 per cent covered by at least a long-term evolution network.

Source: Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, Report of the Secretary-General, https://undocs.org/en/E/2020/57