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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation


Related Goals

Targets and Indicators



Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all


Proportion of the rural population who live within 2 km of an all-season road


Passenger and freight volumes, by mode of transport



Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries


Manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP and per capita


Manufacturing employment as a proportion of total employment



Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets


Proportion of small-scale industries in total industry value added


Proportion of small-scale industries with a loan or line of credit



By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities


COemission per unit of value added



Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending


Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP


Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants



Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States


Total official international support (official development assistance plus other official flows) to infrastructure



Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities


Proportion of medium and high-tech industry value added in total value added



Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020


Proportion of population covered by a mobile network, by technology

Progress and Info

The manufacturing industry’s recovery from COVID-19 remains incomplete and uneven: some high-income regions achieved record-high manufacturing value added per capita in 2022 but levels in LDCs were not much higher than the 2015 baseline. In the aftermath of the pandemic, data show that higher-technology industries recovered faster and proved to be more resilient, pointing to the need to promote innovation and technology transfer in a way that benefits all countries. To achieve Goal 9 by 2030 it is essential to support LDCs, invest in advanced technologies, lower carbon emissions, and increase global mobile broadband access.

• Target 9.2: Global manufacturing value added (MVA) per capita increased from $1,646 (constant 2015 prices) in 2015 to $1,875 in 2022. While Europe and Northern America reached an all-time high of $5,052 in 2022, MVA per capita in LDCs reached only $159, far from the target of doubling their value of $126 in 2015. Although the share of manufacturing in LDCs increased from 12.1% in 2015 to 14.0% in 2022, this pace is not sufficient to achieve the target of doubling the share by 2030. While LDCs in Asia have made considerable progress and are on track, African LDCs will need to significantly accelerate progress for the goal to remain attainable by 2030.
• Target 9.2: After a plunge in 2020, global manufacturing employment returned to the pre-pandemic level in 2021. However, the share of manufacturing employment in total employment continued to decline, falling from 14.3% in 2015 to 13.6% in 2021 worldwide.
• Target 9.4: Global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy combustion and industrial processes grew by 0.9% in 2022 to a new all-time high of 36.8 billion tonnes. Emissions shrank by more than 5% in 2020, but rebounded past pre - pandemic levels in 2021, growing more than 6% in tandem with economic stimulus and a surge in coal demand even as renewables capacity additions scaled record heights. CO2 growth in 2022 was well below GDP growth of 3.2%.
• Target 9.b: In 2022, the medium-high and high-technology industries experienced solid growth, mainly due to the recovery in the automotive sector and consistently strong production in sectors such as computers, electronics and optical products, and electrical equipment. However, the production of basic pharmaceuticals declined due to the COVID-19 situation and shortages of essential inputs. In 2020, sub-Saharan Africa and LDCs had low shares of medium-high and high-technology manufacturing, at 21.7% and 10.6% respectively, compared to 47.7% in Europe and Northern America and 47.1% in Eastern Asia.
• Target 9.c: Mobile broadband (3G or above) access is available to 95% of the world’s population, while 4G coverage has doubled to 88% between 2015 and 2022. However, growth is slowing down, and connecting the remaining 5% is proving difficult. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the gap is 18%, predominantly affecting the population of Central and Western Africa. The coverage gap is almost the same in LDCs and LLDCs