United NationsDepartamento de Asuntos Económicos y Sociales Desarrollo Sostenible

Proteger, restablecer y promover el uso sostenible de los ecosistemas terrestres, gestionar sosteniblemente los bosques, luchar contra la desertificación, detener e invertir la degradación de las tierras y detener la pérdida de biodiversidad

Biodiversity and ecosystems

Objetivos Relacionados


Objetivos Relacionados


Objetivos Relacionados

Targets and Indicators



By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements


Forest area as a proportion of total land area


Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem type



By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally


Progress towards sustainable forest management



By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world


Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area



By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development


Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity


Mountain Green Cover Index



Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species


Red List Index



Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed


Number of countries that have adopted legislative, administrative and policy frameworks to ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits



Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products


Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked



By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species


Proportion of countries adopting relevant national legislation and adequately resourcing the prevention or control of invasive alien species



By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts


Progress towards national targets established in accordance with Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020



Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems


Official development assistance and public expenditure on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems



Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation


Official development assistance and public expenditure on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems



Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities


Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked

Progress and Info

Deforestation and forest degradation, continued biodiversity loss, and the ongoing degradation of ecosystems, are having profound consequences for human wellbeing and survival. The world fell short on 2020 targets to halt biodiversity loss. The COVID-19 pandemic has confirmed that by threatening biodiversity, humanity threatens its own survival. While great efforts are being made on expanding sustainable forest management, increasing coverage of key biodiversity areas, and signing up to legislation and treaties to protect biodiversity and ecosystems, much more needs to be done to put the health of the planet at the centre of all our plans and policies.

While the rate of deforestation has slowed down in the last decade in tropical regions, vigilant targeted efforts are still required to maintain this trend. The proportion of forest area fell from 31.9% of total land area in 2000 to 31.2% in 2020, representing a net loss of almost 100 million hectares of the world’s forests. From 2000 to 2020, forest area increased in Asia, Europe and Northern America, but significantly decreased in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the losses in forest cover, above-ground forest biomass per hectare, the proportion of forest area in protected areas and under long-term management plans, as well as certified forest area all increased or remained stable at the global level and in most of the regions of the world, demonstrating global progress towards sustainable forest management.

In 2020, on average, 43% of each terrestrial Key Biodiversity Area (KBA), 42% of each freshwater KBA, and 41% of each mountain KBA were within protected areas, an increase of around 13-14 percentage points since 2000.

As of February 2021, 127 countries had committed to set their voluntary targets for achieving land degradation neutrality, and in 68 countries, governments had already officially endorsed these targets. Overall, commitments to land restoration are estimated at 1 billion hectares, out of which 450 million hectares are committed through land degradation neutrality targets.

Data based on satellite imagery reveals that the world's mountain's green coverage (forests, grasslands, croplands and wetlands) has remained stable, hovering at about 73% between 2000 and 2018. Green cover tends to be higher in mountain areas below 2,500 meters above sea level. However, mountain green cover varies considerably across geographical regions; ranging from 100% in Oceania to 68% in Northern Africa and Western Asia.

Globally, species extinction risk has worsened by about 10% over the last three decades, with the Red List Index (which ranges from a value of 1 indicating no risk of extinction to a value of 0 indicating all species are extinct) declining from 0.81 in 1993 to 0.73 in 2021.

As of 1 February 2021, 128 countries and the EU had ratified the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing (ABS) (an increase of 60 countries since 2016) and 67 countries and the EU have shared information on their ABS frameworks. Regarding the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, there are now 148 Contracting Parties, and 57 countries have thus far provided information about their ABS measures.

The COVID-19 pandemic and the vast subsequent harms to human and economic well-being have starkly illustrated the potential global impact of zoonotic diseases, for which wildlife trade – both legal and illegal - is a potential vector. While certain markets for illegal wildlife products are declining, like that for ivory (decreased by 3.5-fold since 2013), other species are under increasing threat as offenders shift their focus to more lucrative products like pangolin scales. There was, for example, in 2018 a 10-fold increase in the number of whole pangolin equivalents seized since 2014.

Nearly all countries (98%) have adopted national legislation relevant to the prevention or control of invasive alien species, although there is wide variation in the coverage of this legislation across sectors. The proportion of countries aligning their invasive alien species-related targets with global targets has increased, from 74% in 2016 to 84% in 2020.

As of March 2021, 89 countries and territories have implemented the System of EnvironmentalEconomic Accounting (SEEA), an increase of 29% from 2017. And 62 countries and territories (or 70%) have integrated the SEEA into their regular statistical production and compile and publish the accounts on a regular basis.

In 2019, DAC members’ ODA in support of biodiversity was $6.6 billion, a decrease of 14% in real terms over 2018. In 2021, a total of 232 biodiversity-relevant taxes are in force, spanning 62 countries.

Source: Advance unedited copy of 2021 report of the Secretary-General on Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals