United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development
Topics

Desertification, land degradation and drought

Description

Paragraph 33 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development focuses on the linkage between sustainable management of the planet’s natural resources and social and economic development as well as on “strengthen cooperation on desertification, dust storms, land degradation and drought and promote resilience and disaster risk reduction”.

Sustainable Development Goal 15 of the 2030 Agenda aims to “protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss”.

The economic and social significance of a good land management, including soil and its contribution to economic growth and social progress is recognized in paragraph 205 of the Future We Want. In this context, Member States express their concern on the challenges posed to sustainable development by desertification, land degradation and drought, especially for Africa, LDCs and LLDCs. At the same time, Member States highlight the need to take action at national, regional and international level to reverse land degradation, catalyse financial resources, from both private and public donors and implement both the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and its 10- Year Strategic Plan and Framework (2008-2018).

Furthermore, in paragraphs 207 and 208 of the Future We Want, Member States encourage and recognize the importance of partnerships and initiatives for the safeguarding of land resources, further development and implementation of scientifically based, sound and socially inclusive methods and indicators for monitoring and assessing the extent of desertification, land degradation and drought. The relevance of efforts underway to promote scientific research and strengthen the scientific base of activities to address desertification and drought under the UNCCD is also addressed.

Combating desertification and drought were discussed by the Commission on Sustainable Development in several sessions. In the framework of the Commission's multi-year work programme, CSD 16-17 focused, respectively in 2008 and 2009, on desertification and drought along with the interrelated issues of Land, Agriculture, Rural development and Africa.

In accordance with its multi-year programme of work, CSD-8 in 2000 reviewed integrated planning and management of land resources as its sectoral theme. In its decision 8/3 on integrated planning and management of land resources, the Commission on Sustainable Development noted the importance of addressing sustainable development through a holistic approach, such as ecosystem management, in order to meet the priority challenges of desertification and drought, sustainable mountain development, prevention and mitigation of land degradation, coastal zones, deforestation, climate change, rural and urban land use, urban growth and conservation of biological diversity.

The sectoral cluster of land, desertification, forests and biodiversity, as well as mountains (chapters 10-13 and 15 of Agenda 21) were considered by CSD-3 in 1995 and again at the five-year review in 1997.

The UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) called upon the United Nations General Assembly to establish an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INCD) to prepare, by June 1994, an international convention to combat desertification in those countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa. The Convention was adopted in Paris on 17 June 1994 and opened for signature there on 14-15 October 1994. It entered into force on 26 December 1996.

Deserts are among the "fragile ecosystems" addressed by Agenda 21, and "combating desertification and drought" is the subject of Chapter 12. Desertification includes land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. Desertification affects as much as one-sixth of the world's population, seventy percent of all drylands, and one-quarter of the total land area of the world. It results in widespread poverty as well as in the degradation of billion hectares of rangeland and cropland.

Integrated planning and management of land resources is the subject of chapter 10 of Agenda 21, which deals with the cross-sectoral aspects of decision-making for the sustainable use and development of natural resources, including the soils, minerals, water and biota that land comprises. This broad integrative view of land resources, which are essential for life-support systems and the productive capacity of the environment, is the basis of Agenda 21's and the Commission on Sustainable Development's consideration of land issues.

Expanding human requirements and economic activities are placing ever increasing pressures on land resources, creating competition and conflicts and resulting in suboptimal use of resources. By examining all uses of land in an integrated manner, it makes it possible to minimize conflicts, to make the most efficient trade-offs and to link social and economic development with environmental protection and enhancement, thus helping to achieve the objectives of sustainable development. (Agenda 21, para 10.1) The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is the task manager for chapter 10 of Agenda 21.

Displaying 1 - 76 of 76
Title Type Sort descending Date
MEDROPLAN Website 20-May-2014
Report of the Panel of the Commission on Science and Technology for Development on Science and Technology for Integrated… Background papers/Special studies 1-Jun-1995
Programme Logistics 10-Jan-2008
E/CN.17/1995/10 - Report of Ad Hoc Working Group on Sectoral Issues Meeting reports 31-Mar-1995
E/CN.17/1995/33 - Workshop on Integrated Land Management Meeting reports 7-Apr-1995
E/CN.17/1995/10 - Report of Ad Hoc Working Group on Sectoral Issues Meeting reports 31-Mar-1995
E/CN.17/1995/32 - Indicators of Sustainable Development Meeting reports 7-Apr-1995
Africa Review Report on Drought and Desertification Meeting reports 27-Nov-2007
E/CN.17/2000/6 - Integrated planning and management of land resources Meeting reports 1-Feb-2000
Cluster 4: Land use Other documents 28-Aug-2012
About ENESA Other documents 19-May-2014
Assessment of Progress on Mitigating and Reversing Desertification and Land Degradation Processes, and… Other documents 12-Nov-2007
Zaragoza TOT Workshop Program Other documents 19-May-2014
Yemen Country Report Other documents 19-May-2014
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, Para 41 Other documents 24-May-1992
Concept Note on Expert Group Meeting on Sustainable Development Goal 15: Progress and Prospects Other documents 23-Mar-2018
AGROSEGURO- About Other documents 19-May-2014
Background Paper on Drought - An Assessment of Asia and Pacific Progress Other documents 12-Nov-2007
Drought Management in the Ebro River Basin Other documents 19-May-2014
MEDROPLAN Report: Examples Other documents 20-May-2014
AGROSEGURO: Insuring Drought Risk Other documents 19-May-2014
Beijing Statement Other documents 10-Apr-2008
Ebro Basin Drought Plan Indicators Other documents 19-May-2014
National Capacities to Manage Drought in Jordan Other documents 19-May-2014
Drought Management Plan Guidelines Other documents 19-May-2014
Dr. Wu Drought Implementation Protocol Other documents 20-May-2014
Drought Management in Morocco Other documents 19-May-2014
Socio-Economic Impacts of Drought Other documents 19-May-2014
Agriculture, Rural Development, Drought, Desertification and Land Issues Affecting Sustainable… Other documents 7-Dec-2007
The Analysis, Mapping, and Identification of Critical Gaps in Pre-Impact and Preparedness Drought Management… Other documents 14-Jul-2014
Climate Change in Palestinian Territories Other documents 19-May-2014
Background Note Other documents 10-Jan-2008
Role of Economic and Social Instruments in Drought Management Other documents 19-May-2014
Synthesis of the Thematic Reports on Agriculture and Land, Rural Development, Desertification and Drought - An… Other documents 12-Nov-2007
Near East Drought Management University of Nebraska Other documents 17-Jul-2014
Zaragoza TOT Concept Notes Other documents 19-May-2014
Drought Management in Tunisia Other documents 19-May-2014
Outcome Document - Introduction to the Proposal of the Open Working Group for Sustainable Development Goals Outcome Documents 19-Jul-2014
Report of the International Conference on Combating Desertification Outcome Documents 10-Jan-2008
Agenda on Expert Group Meeting on Sustainable Development Goal 15: Progress and Prospects Programme 23-Mar-2018
A/RES/62/193 - Implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries… Resolutions and decisions 17-Aug-2007
A/RES/68/232-World Soil Day and International Year of Soils Resolutions and decisions 20-Dec-2013
A/70/472 - Sustainable development: report of the Second Committee Resolutions and decisions 16-Dec-2015
A/70/472/Add.1 - Implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the… Resolutions and decisions 23-Dec-2015
A/70/472/Add. 5 - Implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries… Resolutions and decisions 14-Dec-2015
E/CN.17/1998/7/Add.4 - Land Resources in Small Island Developing States Secretary-General Reports 12-Feb-1998
E/CN.17/2009/5 - Policy options and actions for expediting progress in implementation Secretary-General Reports 15-Dec-2008
A/67/295 - Implementation of United Nations environmental conventions Secretary-General Reports 10-Aug-2012
E/CN.17/1997/2/Add.9 - Integrated Approach to the Planning and Management of Land Resources Secretary-General Reports 21-Jan-1997
E/CN.17/2008/5 - The Review on Implementation on Land Secretary-General Reports 11-Feb-2008
A/65/861 - High-level meeting on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought in the context of… Secretary-General Reports 8-Jun-2011
E/CN.17/2000/6/Add.2 - Integrated planning and management of land resources: combating desertification and… Secretary-General Reports 3-Feb-2000
A/73/255 - Implementation of United Nations environmental conventions Secretary-General Reports 25-Jul-2018
E/CN.17/2009/7 - Policy options and actions for expediting progress in implementation: desertification Secretary-General Reports 15-Dec-2008
A/70/230 - Implementation of United Nations environmental conventions Secretary-General Reports 31-Jul-2015
E/CN.17/2000/6/Add.1 - Integrated planning and management of land resources: combating deforestation Secretary-General Reports 1-Feb-2000
A/65/861 - High-level meeting on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought in the context of… Secretary-General Reports 8-Jun-2011
A/68/260 - Protection of global climate for present and future generations of Humankind Implementation of the… Secretary-General Reports 24-Jul-2013
E/CN.17/2000/6/Add.2 - Integrated planning and management of land resources: combating desertification and… Secretary-General Reports 3-Feb-2000
E/CN.17/1995/2 - Planning and Management of Land Resources Secretary-General Reports 2-Feb-1995
E/CN.17/2009/6 - Policy options and actions for expediting progress in implementation: drought Secretary-General Reports 15-Dec-2008
E/CN.17/2000/6/Add.3 - Integrated planning and management of land resources: sustainable mountain development… Secretary-General Reports 1-Feb-2000
A/60/488/Add.7 - Sustainable development: implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat… Secretary-General Reports 16-Sep-2005
A/68/260 - Note by the SG on Implementation of the United Nations Environmental Conventions Secretary-General Reports 5-Aug-2013
E/CN.17/1997/2/Add.10 - Combating Deforestation and Application of the Forest Principles Secretary-General Reports 10-Mar-1997
E/CN.17/2008/7 - Review of implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI):… Secretary-General Reports 15-Dec-2008
E/CN.17/2000/6/Add.4 - Integrated planning and management of land resources: conservation of biological… Secretary-General Reports 1-Feb-2000
E/CN.17/2001/PC/13 - Agriculture, land and desertification Secretary-General Reports 29-Mar-2001
E/CN.17/1997/2/Add.11 - Managing Fragile Ecosystems: Combating Desertification and Drought Secretary-General Reports 22-Jan-1997
A/65/294 - Implementation of United Nations environmental conventions Secretary-General Reports 13-Aug-2010
E/CN.17/2008/6 - Review of Implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI): Drought… Secretary-General Reports 4-Feb-2008
E/CN.17/1999/6/Add.4 - Addendum to the SG Report on the Barbados Programme of Action - Land Resources Secretary-General Reports 12-Feb-1999
E/CN.17/2001/PC/13 - Agriculture, land and desertification Secretary-General Reports 29-Mar-2001
E/CN.17/1995/4 - Combating Desertification and Drought Secretary-General Reports 7-Feb-1995
Summary of Side Event - Land Tenure and Property Rights as Tools for Promoting Peacebuilding and Durable… Side events 17-Mar-2014
TST Issues Brief: Desertification, Land Degradation and Drought Technical Support Team (TST) Issues Briefs 10-May-2013
Displaying 1 - 201 of 201
Title Category Sort descending Date
Togo (Part 1) 7-May-2008
Ensuring the Sustainable Use of Commons: Conserving and Building - Common Property 25-Feb-2009
Guatemala 7-May-2008
European Union (Part 1) 8-May-2008
Drought: The Other Side of Water, Seeking Root Causes and Sustainable Root Solutions 25-Feb-2009
Ghana 25-Feb-2009
UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) 7-May-2008
Oman 25-Feb-2009
Jamaica 7-May-2008
Argentina 7-May-2008
Major Group: Business & Industry 25-Feb-2009
Major Group: Workers & Trade 7-May-2008
Cambodia 25-Feb-2009
Pacific SIDS 7-May-2008
Major Group: NGOs 8-May-2008
Group of 77 & China 25-Feb-2009
Major Group: Science & Technology 25-Feb-2009
Oman 25-Feb-2009
AOSIS 7-May-2008
Togo (Part 2) 7-May-2008
Land Policy Options: Lessons Learned & Best Practices 25-Feb-2009
India 7-May-2008
European Union (Part 2) 8-May-2008
Land Use Planning and Early Warning Systems for Limiting Drought Impacts and Promoting… 25-Feb-2009
Guatemala 25-Feb-2009
World Meteorological Organization 7-May-2008
South Africa 25-Feb-2009
Netherlands 7-May-2008
Australia 7-May-2008
FAO 25-Feb-2009
Canada 25-Feb-2009
United States of America 7-May-2008
Major Group: Women 8-May-2008
Iran 25-Feb-2009
Major Group: Women 25-Feb-2009
South Africa 25-Feb-2009
Canada 7-May-2008
Pacific SIDS 7-May-2008
Policy Framework and Options for Sustainable Land Management (SLM) 25-Feb-2009
Israel 7-May-2008
France 8-May-2008
Australia 25-Feb-2009
Indonesia 25-Feb-2009
Major Group: Workers & Trade 7-May-2008
Switzerland 25-Feb-2009
Norway 7-May-2008
Canada 7-May-2008
Major Group: Indigenous Peoples 25-Feb-2009
Chile 25-Feb-2009
Major Group: Children & Youth 7-May-2008
Japan 25-Feb-2009
Switzerland 25-Feb-2009
European Union 7-May-2008
United States of America 7-May-2008
Argentina 25-Feb-2009
Japan 7-May-2008
Israel 8-May-2008
Barbados 25-Feb-2009
Republic of Korea 25-Feb-2009
Land 7-May-2008
United States of America 25-Feb-2009
Switzerland 7-May-2008
Czech Republic 7-May-2008
Major Group: NGOs 25-Feb-2009
Ecuador 25-Feb-2009
Major Group: Business & Industry 7-May-2008
Mexico 25-Feb-2009
United States of America 25-Feb-2009
Group of 77 & China 7-May-2008
Major Group: Business & Industry 7-May-2008
Australia 25-Feb-2009
Jordan 7-May-2008
Japan 8-May-2008
Canada 25-Feb-2009
Mexico 25-Feb-2009
Land Tenure and Land Use Management 7-May-2008
AOSIS 25-Feb-2009
Tanzania 7-May-2008
European Union 7-May-2008
Mr. Rowshan Jahan 7-May-2008
Major Group: Science & Technology 25-Feb-2009
European Union 25-Feb-2009
Major Group: Indigenous Peoples 7-May-2008
Nigeria 25-Feb-2009
India 7-May-2008
Drought and its impact on hunger and poverty 7-May-2008
AOSIS 25-Feb-2009
UNCCD 7-May-2008
Barbados 25-Feb-2009
Morocco 7-May-2008
South Africa 8-May-2008
Chile 25-Feb-2009
Nigeria 25-Feb-2009
Integrated Management of Land Use, Land Cover, and Hydrology: Preparing for Climate… 7-May-2008
Arab Group 25-Feb-2009
Thailand 7-May-2008
Summary: High-level Segment Roundtable 3 Integrated Land & Water Management for… 13-May-2009
Group of 77 & China 7-May-2008
Land policy and tenure at the World Bank 8-May-2008
UN-Habitat 25-Feb-2009
Group of 77 & China 25-Feb-2009
Major Group: Science & Technology 7-May-2008
Norway 25-Feb-2009
Indonesia 7-May-2008
Algeria 7-May-2008
Arab Group 25-Feb-2009
UN-HABITAT 7-May-2008
Bolivia 25-Feb-2009
Rio Group 7-May-2008
Switzerland 8-May-2008
European Union 25-Feb-2009
Major Group: Business & Industry 25-Feb-2009
Norway 24-Feb-2009
Land 7-May-2008
Panel and Plenary Discussions on Agriculture, Land and Rural Development Asia and the Pacific 6-May-2008
China Desertification 26-Feb-2009
France Desertification 7-May-2008
Spain Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Argentina Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Major Group: NGOs Desertification 7-May-2008
Republic of Korea Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Rio Group Desertification 7-May-2008
Major Group: NGOs Desertification 26-Feb-2009
European Union Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Group of 77 & China Desertification 7-May-2008
Switzerland Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Barbados Desertification 26-Feb-2009
UNCCD Desertification 7-May-2008
Prioritizing responses to desertification Desertification 7-May-2008
Morocco Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Switzerland Desertification 7-May-2008
Major Group: Science & Technology Desertification 26-Feb-2009
France Desertification 26-Feb-2009
India Desertification 7-May-2008
United States of America Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Bolivia Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Major Group: Workers & Trade Desertification 7-May-2008
Argentina Desertification 7-May-2008
Nigeria Desertification 26-Feb-2009
CSD- 17 Intergovernmental Preparatory Meeting Panel on Desertification Desertification 26-Feb-2009
United States of America Desertification 7-May-2008
Group of 77 & China Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Japan Desertification 7-May-2008
Arab Group Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Brazil Desertification 26-Feb-2009
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Desertification 7-May-2008
Australia Desertification 7-May-2008
Russia Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Combating Desertification and Land Degradation: Sustainable Land Management (SLM) Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Venezuela Desertification 7-May-2008
Iran Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Morocco Desertification 7-May-2008
Major Group: Business & Industry Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Canada Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Canada Desertification 7-May-2008
Saudi Arabia Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Algeria Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Major Group: Business & Industry Desertification 7-May-2008
Niger Desertification 7-May-2008
FAO Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Chile Desertification 26-Feb-2009
European Union Desertification 7-May-2008
South Africa Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Australia Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Major Group: Children & Youth Desertification 7-May-2008
Japan Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Norway Desertification 7-May-2008
Major Group: Indigenous Peoples Desertification 26-Feb-2009
Tanzania Desertification, drought and land degredation 23-May-2013
Togo Desertification, drought and land degredation 23-May-2013
South Africa Desertification, drought and land degredation 23-May-2013
New Zealand Desertification, drought and land degredation 23-May-2013
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) Desertification, drought and land degredation 22-May-2013
Argentina Desertification, drought and land degredation 24-May-2013
Uruguay Desertification, drought and land degredation 23-May-2013
Zimbabwe Desertification, drought and land degredation 23-May-2013
Saudi Arabia Desertification, drought and land degredation 23-May-2013
Guatemala Pre-event 8-May-2008
Major Group: Science & Technology Pre-event 8-May-2008
Zambia Pre-event 8-May-2008
Iran Pre-event 8-May-2008
Major Group: Women (Part 1) Pre-event 8-May-2008
Major Group: Children & Youth Pre-event 8-May-2008
Japan Pre-event 8-May-2008
Major Group: Women (Part 2) Pre-event 8-May-2008
Canada (Part 1) Pre-event 8-May-2008
Major Group: Farmers (Part 1) Pre-event 8-May-2008
Mexico Pre-event 8-May-2008
Major Group: Workers & Trade Pre-event 8-May-2008
Canada (Part 2) Pre-event 8-May-2008
Major Group: Farmers (Part 2) Pre-event 8-May-2008
Palestine Pre-event 8-May-2008
Czech Republic Pre-event 8-May-2008
Major Group: Indigenous Peoples Pre-event 8-May-2008
Israel Pre-event 26-Feb-2009
Senegal Pre-event 8-May-2008
European Union Pre-event 8-May-2008
Major Group: NGOs Pre-event 8-May-2008
United States of America Pre-event 8-May-2008
Desertification, Drought & Invasive species in SIDS SIDS 12-May-2008
Message on the World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought Statements 17-Jun-2010

Milestones

  • SDG 15 aims at protecting, restoring and promoting sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainable manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss. Target 15.3 in particular reads to achieve "by 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world".
  • The economic and social significance of a good land management, including soil and its contribution to economic growth and social progress is also recognized in paragraph 205 of the Future We Want. In this context, Member States express their concern on the challenges posed to sustainable development by desertification, land degradation and drought, especially for Africa, LDCs and LLDCs. At the same time, Member States highlight the need to take action at national, regional and international level to reverse land degradation, catalyze financial resources, from both private and public donors and implement both the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and its 10- Year Strategic Plan and Framework (2008-2018). Furthermore, in paragraphs 207 and 208 of the Future We Want, Member States encourage and recognize the importance of partnerships and initiatives for the safeguarding of land resources, further development and implementation of scientifically based, sound and socially inclusive methods and indicators for monitoring and assessing the extent of desertification, land degradation and drought. The relevance of efforts underway to promote scientific research and strengthen the scientific base of activities to address desertification and drought under the UNCCD is also taken into account by paragraph 208.
  • Launched by the General Assembly with the adoption of Resolution A/RES/64/201, the UN Decade for Deserts and the Fight Against Desertification was designed to address the Parties'concern about the worsening of the situation of desertification and its negative impact on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The Decade started in January 2010 and will end in December 2020 with the aim of promoting action ensuring the protection of dry-lands.
  • January 2008 CSD-16 (Chap.2 C,D,E)
    CSD-16 focused on the thematic cluster of agriculture, rural development, land, drought, desertification and Africa.
  • The International Year of Deserts and Desertification was launched to highlight the threat represented by the advancing of deserts and the loss it may cause to biodiversity. Through this International Year, the UN aimed at raising public awareness on this issue and at reversing the trend of desertification, setting the world on a safer and more sustainable path of development.
  • January 2000 CSD-8 (Chap. 4)
    As decided at UNGASS, the economic, sectoral and cross-sectoral themes under consideration for CSD-8 were sustainable agriculture and land management, integrating planning and management of land resources and financial resources, trade and investment and economic growth.CSD-6 to CSD-9 annually gathered at the UN Headquarters for spring meetings. Discussions at each session opened with multi-stakeholder dialogues, in which major groups were invited to make opening statements on selected themes followed by a dialogue with government representatives.
  • January 1996 UNCCD
    The only legally binding international agreement connecting environment and development to sustainable land management, UNCCD addresses the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, known as the drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems and peoples can be found. In 2007 the 10-Year Strategy of the UNCCD (2008-2018) was adopted and on that occasion, parties to the Convention further specified their goals: "to forge a global partnership to reverse and prevent desertification/land degradation and to mitigate the effects of drought in affected areas in order to support poverty reduction and environmental sustainability". The Convention was adopted in Paris on 17 June 1994 and entered into force on 26 December 1996, 90 days after the 50th ratification was received. 194 countries and the European Union are Parties as at April 2015.
  • Integrated planning and management of land resources is the subject of chapter 10 of Agenda 21, which deals with the cross-sectoral aspects of decision-making for the sustainable use and development of natural resources, including the soils, minerals and water that land comprises. Included in the sections devoted to the management of fragile ecosystems, chapter 12 has focused on combating desertification and droughts. The priority to keep in mind while combating desertification is identified by Chap 12.3 in the need to implement "preventive measures for lands that are not yet degraded, or which are only slightly degraded. However, the severely degraded areas should not be neglected. In combating desertification and drought, the participation of local communities, rural organizations, national Governments, non-governmental organizations and international and regional organizations is essential".