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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development

Targets and Indicators



Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection


Total government revenue as a proportion of GDP, by source


Proportion of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes



Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries


Net official development assistance, total and to least developed countries, as a proportion of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee donors’ gross national income (GNI)



Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources


Additional financial resources mobilized for developing countries from multiple sources 


Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP



Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress


Debt service as a proportion of exports of goods and services



Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries


Number of countries that adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for developing countries, including the least developed countries



Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism


 Fixed broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by speed



Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed


Total amount of funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies



Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology


Proportion of individuals using the Internet



Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation


Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through North-South, South‑South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries



Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda


Worldwide weighted tariff-average



Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020


Developing countries’ and least developed countries’ share of global exports



Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access


Weighted average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States



Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence


Macroeconomic Dashboard



Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development


Number of countries with mechanisms in place to enhance policy coherence of sustainable development



Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development 


Extent of use of country-owned results frameworks and planning tools by providers of development cooperation



Enhance the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries, in particular developing countries


Number of countries reporting progress in multi-stakeholder development effectiveness monitoring frameworks that support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals



Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships 


Amount in United States dollars committed to public-private partnerships for infrastructure



By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts


Statistical capacity indicators


Number of countries that have national statistical legislation that complies with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics


Number of countries with a national statistical plan that is fully funded and under implementation, by source of funding



By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries


Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries


Proportion of countries that (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration

Progress and Info

Global partnerships for sustainable development encompass key areas such as finance, technology, trade and data. There are mixed trends in mobilizing financial resources for development, expanding internet connectivity and and strengthening statistical systems. However, a substantial $4 trillion annual investment gap for developing countries to achieve the SDGs, persistent and crippling issues such as unprecedentedly high external debt levels, and limited access to online connectivity in low-income countries underscore the need for sustained collaboration and enhanced cooperation and support in a landscape of worsening international cooperation and geopolitical tensions.


Target 17.1: 2022 data from approximately 130 countries show that globally, government revenue accounts for approximately 33% of GDP. The average overall tax burden or revenue in the form of taxes is 26% of GDP among advanced economies and 18% of GDP among emerging market and developing economies. In 2019, the overall average of proportion government expenditure funded by taxes was about 66% among advanced economies and 61% among emerging market and developing economies. The overall average sharply declined following the pandemic to about 52% in 2020 but rebounded in 2021 and 2022 for both groups of economies (to 62% for advanced economies and 59% for emerging and developing countries), however, still lower than the pre-pandemic level.

Target 17.2: In 2023, ODA by member countries of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) amounted to $223.7 billion, representing 0.37% of DAC members’ combined GNI. Total ODA in 2023 rose by 1.8% in real terms compared to 2022 and by 47% compared to 2015. This was the fifth consecutive year ODA reached a new high. The increase was primarily due to aid for Ukraine, humanitarian aid and contributions to international organisations.

Target 17.3: o In 2022, financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources reported by 101 bilateral and multilateral providers amounted to $276.6 billion in official resources, $55.3 billion mobilized from private finance and $10.2 billion from private grants for development. Sustainable development grants (both official and private) decreased in 2022, compared to 2021. However, sustainable concessional development loans increased by 6%, while non-concessional loans decreased and mobilized private finance increased by 21%, compensating the decrease of 2021. 

o Global Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows in 2023 amounted to an estimated $1.37 trillion, a marginal increase over 2022. However, the increase was due largely to higher values in a small number of conduit economies; excluding these conduits, global FDI flows were 18% lower. The number of international investment projects announced in developing countries in sectors relevant to the SDGs – including infrastructure, renewables, water and sanitation, food security, health and education – remained flat. 

o The annual SDG investment gap in developing countries is now about $4 trillion. If the SDG investment needs to 2030 are to be met, some $30 trillion of additional investment must be found over the next eight years. More than half of the gap, or $2.2 trillion, relates to the energy transition alone. 

o In the post-COVID period, remittances have proved to be resilient and become a premier source of external finance for developing countries. In 2022, remittance flows to low- and middle-income countries increased by 8%, to reach $647 billion. This increase is remarkable, given that it followed a 10.6% growth rate in 2021. The remittance growth rate is expected to moderate to about 4% in 2023.

Target 17.4: The external debt stock level of low- and middle-income countries decreased in 2022 for the first time since 2015, to $9.0 trillion in 2022 from $9.3 trillion in 2021. Despite the slight decrease in 2022, external debt stock levels remained unprecedentedly high following more than a decade of rapid debt accumulation. Moreover, going forward, interest costs both in nominal terms and in relation to GNI and export revenue are expected to increase given the aggressive rise in global interest rates to tame inflation and could become increasingly burdensome by crowding out spending on other priorities for many low- and middle-income countries.

Target 17.5: The number of countries that actively promote outward foreign direct investment to developing countries, including least developed countries, remains limited. In 2023, at least 50 countries, including 19 emerging or developing economies, had at least one type of investment promotion mechanism for outward foreign direct investment in place. However, out of those, only 23 countries have adopted an outward foreign direct investment promotion scheme specifically targeting developing countries, including least developed countries.

Information and communications technology

Target 17.6: Fixed-broadband subscriptions continue to grow steadily, at an average annual growth rate of 6.4% between 2015 and 2023, reaching 19 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants in 2023 globally. Nevertheless, while fixed connections are common among households in upper-middle-income and highincome countries, they are nearly non-existent in low-income countries due to high prices and a lack of infrastructure.

Target 17.8: Approximately 67% of the world’s population, or 5.4 billion people were online in 2023. This represents a growth of 4.7% since 2022, a higher increase than that recorded from 2021 to 2022 at 3.5%. While there was an uptick in the increase in the number of Internet users during the COVID-19 pandemic, in the last three years growth rates in the number of Internet users were back to pre-pandemic levels. 

Data, monitoring and accountability

Target 17.18: o One of the far-reaching effects of the COVID-19 pandemic was the limited ability of national statistical offices to collect recent data for the Sustainable Development Goals. This was reflected in a drop in average data coverage scores in the Open Data Inventory (ODIN). Despite the recent decrease in data production capabilities, a comparison of ODIN coverage scores from 2017 to 2022 shows that the scores of low- and middle-income countries have increased at the same pace as high-income countries. 

o Globally, scores on the Data Sources Performance Index (Statistical Performance Indicators Pillar 4) and Data Infrastructure Performance Index (Statistical Performance Indicators Pillar 5) have been improving since 2016. Data sources improved by only 3 points, held back in part because of COVID disruptions, while data infrastructure—meaning both the hard and soft infrastructure needed to produce data are available—has increased by around 14 points. 

o In 2023, 159 countries and territories reported having national statistical legislation in compliance with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics, representing a significant increase from 132 in 2019 and marking the fastest annual growth of 10 countries. 

o In 2023, a total of 163 countries and territories reported having implemented a national statistical plan, marking an increase from 143 in 2019 and 156 in 2022. Of these, 109 plans were fully funded, up from 91 in 2019 and 100 in 2022. These trends suggest a recovery from the long-term disruptions caused by the pandemic on the planning and execution of statistical activities.

Target 17.19: There has been a resurgence in international support for the development of data and statistics, reaching $799 million in 2021 and 26/26 representing a 14% increase from 2020 and a substantial 44% increase from 2015. Notably, 2021 marked the first time that multilateral aid providers emerged as the main source of funding.