United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Targets and Indicators



By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums


Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements or inadequate housing



By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons


Proportion of population that has convenient access to public transport, by sex, age and persons with disabilities



By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries


Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate


Proportion of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management that operate regularly and democratically



Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage


Total expenditure (public and private) per capita spent on the preservation, protection and conservation of all cultural and natural heritage, by type of heritage (cultural, natural, mixed and World Heritage Centre designation), level of government (national, regional and local/municipal), type of expenditure (operating expenditure/investment) and type of private funding (donations in kind, private non-profit sector and sponsorship)



By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations


Number of deaths, missing persons and persons affected by disaster per 100,000 peoplea


Direct disaster economic loss in relation to global GDP, including disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic servicesa



By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management


Proportion of urban solid waste regularly collected and with adequate final discharge out of total urban solid waste generated, by cities


Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g. PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted)



By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities


Average share of the built-up area of cities that is open space for public use for all, by sex, age and persons with disabilities


Proportion of persons victim of physical or sexual harassment, by sex, age, disability status and place of occurrence, in the previous 12 months



Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, per-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning


Proportion of population living in cities that implement urban and regional development plans integrating population projections and resource needs, by size of city



By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels


Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030a


Number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategiesa



Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials


Proportion of financial support to the least developed countries that is allocated to the construction and retrofitting of sustainable, resilient and resource-efficient buildings utilizing local materials

Progress and Info

Rapid urbanization has resulted in a growing number of slum dwellers, inadequate and overburdened infrastructure and services and worsening air pollution. The pandemic will hit the hardest the more than 1 billion slum dwellers worldwide, who suffer from a lack of adequate housing, no running water at home, shared toilets, few or no waste management systems, overcrowded public transport and limited access to formal health-care facilities. Many in that population work in the informal sector and are at high risk of losing their livelihood as cities shut down. Urgent response plans are needed to prepare for and respond to outbreaks in informal settlements and slums.

The number of slum dwellers reached more than 1 billion in 2018, which represents 24 per cent of the urban population, up slightly from 23 per cent in 2014. The number of people living in urban slums is highest in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia (370 million), sub-Saharan Africa (238 million) and Central and Southern Asia (226 million).

Access to adequate, reliable and safe public transport is a basic urban need. As shown in data collected in 2019 from a sample of 610 cities in 95 countries, only half of the world’s urban population had convenient access to public transport, defined as living within 500 metres’ walking distance from a low-capacity transport system (such as a bus stop) and within 1,000 metres of a high-capacity transport system (such as a railway or a ferry terminal).

Data collected in 2019 from a sample of 755 cities in 95 countries show that, in the period 1990–2015, most urban areas recorded a general increase in the extent of built-up area (defined as the presence of buildings) per person. On average, all regions except sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern and South-Eastern Asia recorded a consistent increase in the built-up area per capita, with Australia and New Zealand recording the highest values.

Based on 2019 data from 610 cities in 95 countries, the share of land allocated to streets and open spaces, which is critical to cities’ productivity and the social and health dimensions of their populations, averaged only about 16 per cent globally. Of those, streets accounted for about three times as much urban land as open public spaces, such as parks and riverfronts. The share of the population that could obtain access to open public spaces within 400 metres’ walking distance along a street network averaged 46.7 per cent.

Source: Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, Report of the Secretary-General, https://undocs.org/en/E/2020/57