Stating the MDG Report 2015, "Africa made great strides towards the eight Millennium Development Goals. In many areas, especially related to health and education, the advance registered by Sub-Saharan Africa was the fastest among all developing regions. At the same time, the Northern part of the continent met many of the targets, including those on poverty and hunger reduction, universal primary education, children and mothers' health, as well as sanitation."
Nevertheless, many goals and targets have yet to be achieved:
- In spite of the fact that the child mortality rate in Sub- Saharan Africa declined five times faster during 2005-2013 than it was 1990-1995, the region still detains the highest rate.
- Furthermore, 70% of its population still suffers from lack of access to improved sanitation facility, 41% of its inhabitants still live, in 2015, with less than $1.25 a day and out of the 57 million of global out-of-school children of primary school age in 2015, 33 million are in Sub-Saharan Africa.
- In the past two decades, Northern Africa has not registered any improvements in women’s access to paid employment, with women still holding less than one out of five paid jobs in the non-agricultural sector.
Therefore, the Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development acknowledges that "progress made in the last 15 years has been uneven, particularly in Africa where some MDGs remained out of track " and reiterates the need to focus on this continent, by "recommitting ourselves to the full realization of all the MDGs, including the off-track MDGs, in particular by providing focused and scaled-up assistance to least developed countries and other countries in special situations, in line with relevant support programmes. The new Agenda builds on the Millennium Development Goals and seeks to complete what these did not achieve, particularly in reaching the most vulnerable."
In its target 4.b, the Agenda highlights the necessity "to substantially expand at global level the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrollment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes".
It is also committed, in its target 9.a, to "facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and Small Island developing States. Whereas, it its target 10.b it calls to encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes".
Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio (1992), sustainable development remained elusive for many African countries, with poverty being a major challenge and desertification, deforestation and climate change its main treats.
Furthermore, only 15% of the Sub-Saharan African rural population had access to electricity in 2012 and the continent sorely lacks important infrastructure investments. The absence of access to modern energy services is a grave obstacle to sustainable development, as recognized by the Secretary-General’s Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) Initiative and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 7, and contributes greatly to Africa’s poverty trap.
The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), launched by African heads of state in 2001, has represented the response of African countries to those treats and challenges. NEPAD has indeed aimed at providing a framework for sustainable development to be shared by all Africa's people, emphasizing the role of partnerships among African countries themselves and between them and the international community, and proposed a shared and common vision to eradicate poverty through sustained economic growth and sustainable development.
African governments also reinforced the pace of regional integration through the rationalization of existing regional economic communities, increasing the power of the African Union, especially in the field of security and peace management.
These efforts have been supported by the international community, with financial and technical contributions to regional communities and specific initiatives to foster African development. Thus, the Heavily Indebted and Poor Countries (HIPC) program was initiated by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1996, providing debt relief and low-interest loans to reduce external debt repayments to sustainable levels. Nominal debt service relief under HIPC to the 29 countries that have reached their decision points has been estimated to amount to about US$62 billion, a significant share of which benefited Sub-Saharan African countries.
For the United Nations in particular, Africa has been a priority area, as illustrated by the establishment of the Office of the Special Adviser on Africa (OSAA) by the Secretary-General in 2003 and the reference to Africa's sustainable development as a cross-cutting issue in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (see chapter VIII) which emerged from the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002.
A growing emphasis is being placed on the Nexus approach to sustainable development, seeking to realize synergies from the links between development factors such as energy, health, education, water, food, gender, and economic growth. In this regard and as part of the follow up to the 2012 Conference on Sustainable Development or Rio+20, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA), in collaboration with SE4All, UN-Energy and the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), organized Global Conference on Rural Energy Access: A Nexus Approach to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Dec 4 – 6, 2013.
For more information and documents on this topic, please visit this link.
|Title||Type Sort descending||Date|
|Resolutions and decisions||23-Dec-2015|
|Resolutions and decisions||24-Dec-2015|
|Resolutions and decisions||14-Dec-2015|
|Resolutions and decisions||30-Jul-2015|
|Technical Support Team (TST) Issues Briefs||17-Oct-2013|
|Title||Category Sort descending||Date|
|Major Group: NGOs||Africa||5-May-2008|
|Democratic Republic of Congo||Africa||26-Feb-2009|
|Major Group: NGOs||Africa||8-May-2008|
|UN Regional Commissions||Africa||25-Feb-2009|
|Major Group: Science & Technology||Africa||9-May-2008|
|Canada (Part 1)||Africa||9-May-2008|
|Major Group: Women||Africa||26-Feb-2009|
|Major Group: Workers & Trade||Africa||5-May-2008|
|United States of America||Africa||9-May-2008|
|Major Group: Children & Youth||Africa||8-May-2008|
|Major Group: Business & Industry||Africa||26-Feb-2009|
|United States of America||Africa||3-May-2010|
|Major Group: Women||Africa||9-May-2008|
|Canada (Part 2)||Africa||8-May-2008|
|Major Group: Workers & Trade||Africa||26-Feb-2009|
|Affordable Access to Quality Healthcare: Health Micro-Insurance in Uganda||Africa||8-May-2008|
|Major Group: NGOs||Africa||8-May-2008|
|Group of 77 & China||Africa||26-Feb-2009|
|United States of America||Africa||26-Feb-2009|
|European Union (Part 1)||Africa||9-May-2008|
|The Impact of Regional Integration on Investment, Agricultural Production and…||Africa||8-May-2008|
|Major Group: Business & Industry||Africa||9-May-2008|
|Summary: High-level Segment Roundtable 2 Realizing a Green Revolution in Africa||Africa||14-May-2009|
|Hunger, Poverty and Sustainable Development: The New Context of the Global Food Crisis||Africa||9-May-2008|
|Major Group: Farmers||Africa||26-Feb-2009|
|African Wildlife Foundation||Africa||26-Feb-2009|
|European Union (Part 2)||Africa||9-May-2008|
|Major Group: Indigenous Peoples||Africa||9-May-2008|
|Creating Profitable Agricultural Value Chains & Protecting Natural Resources in…||Africa||8-May-2008|
|Food Security: How to Feed Africa||Africa||14-May-2009|
|Sustainable Development and Food Security: The African Context||Africa||9-May-2008|
|Major Group: NGOs||Africa||26-Feb-2009|
|Major Group: Farmers||Africa||5-May-2008|
|Outcome of the Africa RIM in preparation for CSD-18||Africa||3-May-2010|
|Development Challenges in Africa - An Introduction to Plenary Discussion||Africa||26-Feb-2009|
|Major Group: Science & Technology||Africa||26-Feb-2009|
|Major Group: Women||Co-chairs' meetings with Major Groups||11-Dec-2013|
|Sweden||Ministerial Roundtable on Africa||14-May-2008|
|Major Group: Local Authorities||Ministerial Roundtable on Africa||14-May-2008|
|Major Group: Science & Technology||Ministerial Roundtable on Africa||14-May-2008|
|UN-HABITAT||Ministerial Roundtable on Africa||14-May-2008|
|Deputy Secretary-General Ms. Asha-Rose Migiro||Ministerial Roundtable on Africa||14-May-2008|
|China||Ministerial Roundtable on Africa||14-May-2008|
|Czech Republic||Ministerial Roundtable on Africa||14-May-2008|
|Japan||Needs of countries in special situations||11-Dec-2013|
|Overview, Challenges and Elements of Plan of Action||Presentations||2-Jun-2003|
|Optimal sharing of benefits||Presentations||19-Jun-2005|
|Energy access in rural areas||Presentations||2-Jun-2003|
|Power systems interconnection||Presentations||19-Jun-2005|
|Regional Electricity Cooperation and Integration (RECI) Feasibility Assessment||Presentations||19-Jun-2005|
|Harmonising the Regulatory Environment in Africa||Presentations||2-Jun-2003|
|Financing interconnection projects||Presentations||19-Jun-2005|
|Political/legal framework of interconnection||Presentations||19-Jun-2005|
|Regulatory Instruments to Advance Public Benefits||Presentations||2-Jun-2003|
|Case study - interconnection of power systems in the Greater Mekong Sub-region||Presentations||19-Jun-2005|
|The challenges of operationalizing power pools in Africa||Presentations||19-Jun-2005|
|A Third Way for the Electricity Industry||Presentations||2-Jun-2003|
|Market operational structures||Presentations||19-Jun-2005|
|Regional market analysis||Presentations||19-Jun-2005|
|Hydropower Development in Africa: Problems and Prospects||Presentations||2-Jun-2003|
|Interconnected Systems Operating Conditions||Presentations||19-Jun-2005|
|Aslam Chaudhry, UN DESA||Session 1: Managing Water and Sanitation Services in Urban Areas - Issues and Challenges||6-Dec-2006|
|Daniel Adom, UN-HABITAT||Session 1: Managing Water and Sanitation Services in Urban Areas - Issues and Challenges||6-Dec-2006|
|Stephen M. Donkor, UNECA||Session 1: Managing Water and Sanitation Services in Urban Areas - Issues and Challenges||6-Dec-2006|
|Nairobi Water and Sewerage Company||Session 1: Managing Water and Sanitation Services in Urban Areas - Issues and Challenges||6-Dec-2006|
|Roohi Abdullah, Consultant/UN DESA||Session 1: Managing Water and Sanitation Services in Urban Areas - Issues and Challenges||6-Dec-2006|
|Umberto Triulzi, IPALMO||Session 2: Strengthening Institutional Governance and Accountability||6-Dec-2006|
|Alain Morel, WSP||Session 2: Strengthening Institutional Governance and Accountability||6-Dec-2006|
|Graham Alabaster, UN-HABITAT||Session 2: Strengthening Institutional Governance and Accountability||6-Dec-2006|
|Hakan Tropp, SIWI/Water Integrity Network||Session 2: Strengthening Institutional Governance and Accountability||6-Dec-2006|
|Emanuele Lobina, PSIRU, University of Greenwich||Session 2: Strengthening Institutional Governance and Accountability||6-Dec-2006|
|William Muhairwe, NWSC, Uganda||Session 2: Strengthening Institutional Governance and Accountability||6-Dec-2006|
|Symerre Grey-Jonnson, African Forum for Utilities Regulators, AFUR||Session 2: Strengthening Institutional Governance and Accountability||6-Dec-2006|
|Migemi Abraham, Mekorot Water Co. Ltd., Tel Aviv||Session 2: Strengthening Institutional Governance and Accountability||6-Dec-2006|
|Antonio Miranda, UNSG Advisory Board on WATSAN||Session 2: Strengthening Institutional Governance and Accountability||6-Nov-2006|
|Gerard Payen||Session 3: Financing Water and Sanitation Services||7-Dec-2006|
|Sven-Erik Skogsfors, SIWI||Session 3: Financing Water and Sanitation Services||7-Dec-2006|
|Meera Mehta, Consultant, W&S Program||Session 3: Financing Water and Sanitation Services||7-Dec-2006|
|David Le Blanc, UN DESA||Session 3: Financing Water and Sanitation Services||7-Dec-2006|
|Timeyin Uwejamomere, WaterAid UK||Session 3: Financing Water and Sanitation Services||7-Dec-2006|
|Antonio Miranda||Session 4: Promoting Partnerships Among Water Operators||7-Dec-2006|
|Keith Robertson, IWA||Session 4: Promoting Partnerships Among Water Operators||7-Dec-2006|
|AfWA||Session 4: Promoting Partnerships Among Water Operators||7-Dec-2006|
|Symerre Grey-Johnson, African Forum for Utility Regulators||Session 4: Promoting Partnerships Among Water Operators||7-Dec-2006|
|Water Utility Partnership||Session 4: Promoting Partnerships Among Water Operators||7-Dec-2006|
|Remarks to Security Council Open Debate on Preventive Diplomacy in Africa||Statements||16-Jul-2010|
|Message to 45th Annual Meeting of the African Development Bank and 36th Meeting of the African…||Statements||27-May-2010|
|Message on Africa Day||Statements||25-May-2010|
|Major Group: Local Authorities||Statements||9-May-2008|
January 2015 Targets 4.b, 9.a, 10.bThe 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development acknowledges that "progress made in the last 15 years has been uneven, particularly in Africa where some MDGs remained out of track" and reiterates the need to focus on this continent. Under target 4.b, the Agenda highlights the necessity "to substantially expand at global level the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrollment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes". It is also committed, as target 9.a reads, to "facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and Small Island developing States. Whereas, target 10.b calls to encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes".
January 2009 CSD-17 (Chap.1B and Chap.2f)CSD-16 and CSD-17 focused on the thematic cluster of agriculture, rural development, land, drought, desertification and Africa. CSD-17 negotiated policy recommendations for most of the issues under discussion. Delegates adopted by acclamation a “Text as prepared by the Chair,” including all negotiated text as well as proposed language from the Chair for policy options and practical measures to expedite implementation of the issues under the cluster. The text included rising food prices, ongoing negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO) on the Doha Development Round, and an international focus on the climate change negotiations under the auspices of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
January 2008 CSD-16 (Chap.2 f)CSD-16 and CSD-17 focused on the thematic cluster of agriculture, rural development, land, drought, desertification and Africa. As far as CSD-16 is concerned, on this occasion delegates were called to review implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for Implementation and the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the CSD-13 decisions on water and sanitation. A High-level Segment was also held from 14-16 May, with nearly 60 ministers in attendance.
January 2002 Monterrey ConsensusKnown as the outcome document of the UN International Conference on Financing for Development held n Monterrey in 2002, the Monterrey Consensus has become, since its adoption, the major reference for international development cooperation. The document embraces six areas of Financing for Development: 1) mobilization of domestic financial resources for development, 2) mobilization of international resources for development: foreign direct investment and other private flows. 3) International Trade as an engine for development. 4) increase of international financial and technical cooperation for development. 5) external debt. 6) addressing of systemic issues: enhancing the coherence and consistency of the international monetary, financial and trading systems in support of development.
January 2002 JPOI (Chap. 8)For the United Nations, Africa has always been a priority area, as illustrated by the reference to Africa's sustainable development as a cross-cutting issue in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation which emerged from the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002.
January 2001 NEPADAdopted at the 37th session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government in July 2001 in Lusaka, Zambia, the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is an economic development program of the African Union aimed at ensuring an overarching vision and policy framework for accelerating economic co-operation and integration among African countries.
January 1996 The Enhanced HIPC InitiativeLaunched in 1996, the Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC) was implemented in 1999 as the result of a comprehensive review undergone by the International Development Association (IDA) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), including public consultations. The Initiative’s debt-burden thresholds were adjusted downward, which enabled a broader group of countries to qualify for larger volumes of debt relief. Moreover, a number of creditors, including the main multi laterals, started to provide earlier assistance to qualifying countries in the form of interim relief at decision point. Finally, the “floating completion point” was introduced, providing incentives to speed up reforms and increase country ownership.