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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Promoting cross-sectoral collaboration to accelerate the use of deep, on-and offshore fresh water sources in water-scarce communities.

Ruden AS (
Private sector

    In 2020, the UN placed emphasis on the importance of exploring deep, onshore, and offshore freshwater among other unconventional water resources, to develop resilience of water-scarce communities to tackle climate change. Researchers estimate that the volume of untapped on-and offshore fresh groundwater is one hundred times greater than the amount extracted from the Earth's subsurface in the 20th century. Recent studies show that deep on-and offshore groundwater might be the most cost-effective and sustainable solution to water scarcity in many costal countries where these aquifers are connected to the surface and replenish continuously. To make unconventional sources of water accessible, innovative solutions from all angles need to be considered. Drawing on the successful case study of deep groundwater in Somalia, Ruden AS as a member of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action CA21112 - OFF-SOURCE, commits to promoting inter-sectoral collaboration between the private sector (oil industry and water industry), academia, and research on a global scale, and to assist the inter-ministerial dialogue through water-and-science diplomacy, laying water and science at the center of the discussion.

    Expected Impact

    Achieving the SDGs by 2030 demands new strategies solutions and collaboration to tackle the complex problems. Deep, onshore, and offshore freshwater is an unconventional water resource with great potential, but it also poses great challenges. For example, to date, transboundary aquifers have been addressed only onshore. Outlined policies for offshore aquifers need to be developed. This action focuses on involving interdisciplinary expert parties (the private sector, research, and academia) in efforts to find solutions to complex problems, while working hand in hand with the Civil Society, International support, and Government entities. This action will delineate a way of working that facilitates communication, encourages innovation, and integrates teams that until now have been working in isolation from global efforts to achieve the SDG 6.


    Government of Somalia: Ministry of Energy and Water Resources of Somalia (Leading and implementing ministry); Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources of Somalia (supporting role); Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation of Somalia (supporting role). Government of Kenya: Ministry of Water, Sanitation, and Irrigation. Government of Zanzibar: Ministry of Water, Energy, and Minerals of Zanzibar. Government of Norway: Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (funding/donor for Somalia deep groundwater identification); The Royal Norwegian Embassy in Nairobi. Private sector: Ruden AS (specialized in water – know how), SLB (oil and gas services company – supporting role - software), National Oil Corporation of Kenya (supporting role for Kenya deep groundwater identification – access to data). Research and Academia (COST Action CA21112 - OFF-SOURCE) 111 researches from 33 countries representing: University of Stavanger; Ruden AS; Stockholm University; University of Oxford; University of Derby; RGC Ldt Uk; National Oceanography Centre, Southampton; University of Latvia; Maria Curie Sklodowska University; Gdynia Maritime University; Czech Geological Survey; Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ; GEOMAR - Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel; BGR-Federal; IHE Delft Institute for Water Education; Nectaerra; COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology); Institute of Oceanology - BAS, Varna; Ghent University - Faculty of Science; MAPPEM Geophysics; Géosciences Montpellier, University of Montpellier; IUEM, Plouzaé; OGS Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale; University of Bologna; University of Roma Tre; National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics – OGS; Università di Cagliari; Istituto nazionale di geofisica e vulcanologia (INGV); National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics – OGS; National Research Council of Italy; Catalan Agency of Water; Geociencias y Exploraciones Marítimas; Instituto Geológico y Minero de España; Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra; Gemigeo; University of Almeria; Geological Survey of Spain; Institute of Marine Sciences, CSIC; Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, I.P. (IPMA); Croatian Water; Hrvatski geološki institut - Croatian geological survey; Croatian Geological Survey; Faculty of Science; University of Banja Luka; Agency for Environmental Consulting "Akvatorija"; Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts; The Academy of Technical Applied Studies, Belgrade; Transfer Center of Agriculture Technology, Fushe Kruje; Albanian University; Aleksander Moisiu University; Albanian Geologists Association; Hellenic Centre for Marine Research; Soil and Water Resources Institute; Indigo-Med; University Cyril and Methodious; Yildiz Technical University; Artvin Coruh University; Middle East Technical University; Abdullah Gül University; Osmaniye Korkut Ata University; Giresun University; Osmaniye Korkut Ata University; University of Sfax; Lebanese Center for Water and Environment (LCWE); Lebanese University; University of Haifa; Technion - Israel Institute of Technology; Ferdowsi University of Mashhad; Ocean University of China; Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU); University of Canterbury; Ocean Floor Geophysics; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; A Ripple Effect pllc; University of KwaZulu-Natal.

    Additional information

    Ruden AS works on all aspects of water, from the science of finding sustainable sources of water, to assisting in inter-ministerial cooperation helping realize water projects on a national scale. Scientifically, we specialize in deep groundwater (between 400-2000m depth), which is an unconventional but reliable source, independent from short-term climate variations, and naturally protected from pollution. Therefore, deep groundwater is crucial for drinking water, sustainable food production, and economic development. Ruden AS is a member of the COST Action CA21112 - OFF-SOURCE, that aims at creating a new scientific network that will address if and how OFG can be used as an unconventional source of potable water in coastal regions. The action was designed to promote the exchange of ideas, capabilities, and experiences on the latest developments in offshore freshened groundwater research by involving Young Researchers and Innovators and experienced researchers from across Europe and beyond.

    Goal 2

    End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

    Goal 2


    By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round


    Prevalence of undernourishment


    Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)


    By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons


    Prevalence of stunting (height for age <-2 standard deviation from the median of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age


    Prevalence of malnutrition (weight for height >+2 or <-2 standard deviation from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age, by type (wasting and overweight)


    Prevalence of anaemia in women aged 15 to 49 years, by pregnancy status (percentage)


    By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment

    Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming/pastoral/forestry enterprise size


    Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status


    By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality


    Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture


    By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed


    Number of (a) plant and (b) animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium- or long-term conservation facilities


    Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk of extinction


    Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries

    The agriculture orientation index for government expenditures


    Total official flows (official development assistance plus other official flows) to the agriculture sector


    Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round


    Agricultural export subsidies


    Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility


    Indicator of food price anomalies

    Goal 6

    Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

    Goal 6


    By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all


    Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services


    By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations


    Proportion of population using (a) safely managed sanitation services and (b) a hand-washing facility with soap and water


    By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally


    Proportion of domestic and industrial wastewater flows safely treated


    Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality


    By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity

    Change in water-use efficiency over time


    Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources


    By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate


    Degree of integrated water resources management 


    Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation


    By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

    Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time


    By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies

    Amount of water- and sanitation-related official development assistance that is part of a government-coordinated spending plan


    Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management


    Proportion of local administrative units with established and operational policies and procedures for participation of local communities in water and sanitation management

    Goal 13

    Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

    Goal 13


    Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries


    Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population


    Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030


    Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies


    Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning


    Number of countries with nationally determined contributions, long-term strategies, national adaptation plans and adaptation communications, as reported to the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


    Total greenhouse gas emissions per year


    Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning


    Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment


    Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible


    Amounts provided and mobilized in United States dollars per year in relation to the continued existing collective mobilization goal of the $100 billion commitment through to 2025


    Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities



    Number of least developed countries and small island developing States with nationally determined contributions, long-term strategies, national adaptation plans and adaptation communications, as reported to the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Goal 17

    Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development

    Goal 17


    Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection

    Total government revenue as a proportion of GDP, by source
    Proportion of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes


    Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries

    Net official development assistance, total and to least developed countries, as a proportion of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee donors’ gross national income (GNI)


    Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources


    Additional financial resources mobilized for developing countries from multiple sources 

    Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP


    Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress

    Debt service as a proportion of exports of goods and services


    Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries


    Number of countries that adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for developing countries, including the least developed countries


    Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism


     Fixed broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by speed


    Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed


    Total amount of funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies


    Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology

    Proportion of individuals using the Internet


    Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation


    Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through North-South, South‑South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries


    Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda

    Worldwide weighted tariff-average


    Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020


    Developing countries’ and least developed countries’ share of global exports


    Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access


    Weighted average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States


    Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence

    Macroeconomic Dashboard


    Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development

    Number of countries with mechanisms in place to enhance policy coherence of sustainable development


    Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development 

    Extent of use of country-owned results frameworks and planning tools by providers of development cooperation


    Enhance the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries, in particular developing countries


    Number of countries reporting progress in multi-stakeholder development effectiveness monitoring frameworks that support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals


    Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships 


    Amount in United States dollars committed to public-private partnerships for infrastructure


    By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts


    Statistical capacity indicators

    Number of countries that have national statistical legislation that complies with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics

    Number of countries with a national statistical plan that is fully funded and under implementation, by source of funding


    By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries

    Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries

    Proportion of countries that (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration

    Outlined policies for deep on-and off shore groundwater

    Guidelines for Cross-Sectoral Cooperation on deep groundwater: A Way of Working Guide

    Staff / Technical expertise
    Ruden Water will devote its technical competency to this initiative
    In-kind contribution
    Ruden Water will devote no less than 100 hours Contribution in kind
    Other, please specify
    Access to a large community/network of technical experts and non-governmental key players.
    No progress reports have been submitted. Please sign in and click here to submit one.
    Action Network
    water logo
    01 September 2022 (start date)
    30 January 2027 (date of completion)
    Ruden AS
    1. Africa
    2. Europe
    3. Asia and Pacific
    4. North America
    5. Latin America and the Caribbean
    6. West Asia
    Other beneficiaries

    Local communities in water-scarce countries

    Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Czech Republic
    Czech Republic
    Climate Emergency Institute
    New Zealand
    New Zealand
    South Africa
    South Africa
    Global Action Plan
    The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
    The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
    Ibero-American Network of Life Cycle Assesment
    United States of America
    United States of America
    Contact Information

    Elizabeth , Ruden Water, Team Lead