United Nations经济和社会事务部 可持续发展
专题

Oceans and Seas

海洋 

说明

海洋和沿海地区是地球生态系统不可分割的重要组成部分,对可持续发展至关重要。它们覆盖地球表面的三分之二以上,含地球上97%的水。海洋创造可持续的生计和体面的工作,以此为消除贫困作出贡献。超过30亿人依靠海洋和沿海资源维持生计。此外,海洋对全球粮食安全和人类健康至关重要。海洋也是全球气候的主要调节器,是温室气体的重要吸收汇,为我们提供水和呼吸的氧气。最后,海洋是巨大的生物多样性储藏库。


 

海洋对可持续发展的重要性得到国际社会的广泛承认,并体现在《21世纪议程》第17章、《约翰内斯堡执行计划》和可持续发展委员会作出的多项决定中。千年生态系统评估强调,所有人类都依赖地球的生态系统及其提供的服务。在里约+20成果文件我们希望的未来中,会员国呼吁“以通盘整合的方式对待可持续发展,引导人类与自然和谐共存,努力恢复地球生态系统的健康和完整性”。在这方面,除其他外,它们强调“海洋及其资源的养护和可持续利用对可持续发展的重要性,因为这有利于消除贫穷、实现持续经济增长、保证粮食安全、创造可持续生计及体面工作……”。因此,2014年8月提交联合国大会的可持续发展目标开放工作组提案载有旨在“保护和可持续利用海洋和海洋资源以促进可持续发展”的可持续发展目标14。《2030年可持续发展议程》中可持续发展目标14下的10个具体目标以及其他许多相关的可持续发展目标针对与海洋有关的问题,《2030年可持续发展议程》是2015年联合国首脑会议的成果文件,该首脑会议旨在通过2015年后的发展议程。

 

为了使海洋和海洋资源成功地为人类福祉作出贡献,必需有生态系统完整性以及正常运作的生物地球化学和物理过程。这并不要求不受干扰的系统,但要求系统没有遭受严重或不可逆转的损害。通过生态系统完整性得以提供所谓的支持性生态系统服务,而这些服务反过来又是重要的调节、供应和文化生态系统服务的基础,这类服务对人类至关重要。虽然海洋和海洋资源提供的好处对所有人都很重要,但穷人、土著人民和弱势群体高度依赖自然资源和生态系统服务,他们的福祉可能与这些惠益特别相关。海洋和海洋资源与人类福祉之间的联系不是片面的。虽然人类福祉的增加往往以生态系统完整性为代价,但它也有可能减少对海洋环境的人为负面影响,例如通过更可持续地利用资源、改变生产和消费模式以及改进对人类活动的管理和控制。然而,要做到这一点,需要良好的治理和有利的环境。
 

海洋和海洋资源由于人类的活动而日益受到威胁、退化或被破坏,降低了其提供关键生态系统服务的能力。所受到的各种重大威胁除其他外,包括气候变化、海洋污染、不可持续的海洋资源开采以及海洋和沿海生境和景观的实际改变和破坏。沿海和海洋生态系统和生境的恶化正在对全世界人类福祉产生负面影响。

 

善政、有利的环境、可持续的陆地和海洋上的人类活动以及适当的措施,这些将是减少对海洋环境的人为负面影响所必须的,例如通过更可持续地利用资源、改变生产和消费模式以及改进对人类活动的管理和控制。理想的是,项目和措施应以综合、跨部门和跨规模的方式设计和实施,并符合生态系统方法,让所有利益攸关方参与。




 

不保护和养护地球生态系统,就不能实现人类的福祉。为了保持海洋为人类提供的生活质量,同时维持其生态系统的完整性,需要改变人类如何看待、管理和使用海洋和海洋资源。


 

欲了解关于这一主题的更多信息和文件,请访问此链接

 

Lisbon UN Ocean Conference

The ocean covers 70 percent of the Earth’s surface, is the planet's largest biosphere, and home to up to 80 percent of all life in the world. It generates 50 percent of the oxygen we need, absorbs 25 percent of all carbon dioxide emissions and captures 90 percent of the additional heat generated from those emissions. It is not just ‘the lungs of the planet’ but also its largest carbon sink - a vital buffer against the impacts of climate change.

It nurtures unimaginable biodiversity and produces food, jobs, mineral and energy resources needed for life on the planet to survive and thrive. There is a great deal we still do not know about the ocean but there are many reasons why we need to manage it sustainability - as set out in the targets of Sustainable Development Goal 14: Life Below Water.

The science is clear – the ocean is facing unprecedent threats as a result of human activities. Its health and ability to sustain life will only get worse as the world population grows and human activities increase. If we want to address some of the most defining issues of our time such as climate change, food insecurity, diseases and pandemics, diminishing biodiversity, economic inequality and even conflicts and strife, we must act now to protect the state of our ocean.

Read more here.

First UN Ocean Conference (2017, New York)

Our oceans, our future: partnering for the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 14

The high-level United Nations Conference to Support the Implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development (informally, The Ocean Conference) was convened at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 5 to 9 June 2017, coinciding with World Oceans Day, to support the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 14. The Governments of Fiji and Sweden held the co-hosting responsibilities of the Conference.

Read more here.

Special Envoy for the Ocean

Peter Thomson

 

Learn about the latest activities of Peter Thomson, Special Envoy for the Ocean

Background

At the high-level United Nations Conference to Support the Implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 14 (SDG 14) - The Ocean Conference - held in June 2017 at UN headquarters in New York, close to 1,400 voluntary commitments for concrete action to advance implementation of SDG 14 were made by governments, the United Nations system, civil society organizations, academia, the scientific community, and the private sector. These commitments, together with the Conference outcome document Our Ocean, Our Future: Call for Action, mark a global breakthrough on the path to sustainable management and conservation of our oceans, seas and marine resources.

Each of the Ocean Conference voluntary commitments addresses one or several of the SDG 14 targets, often with associated positive impact on other SDGs, including for example SDG 3 on good health and well-being and SDG13 on climate action, among others.

To follow-up on the implementation of these voluntary commitments; to catalyze and generate new voluntary commitments; and to facilitate collaboration and networking amongst different actors in support of SDG 14, the United Nations have launched nine thematic multi-stakeholder Communities of Ocean Action.

Each community is coordinated by designated focal points who work together with United Nations Secretary-General's Special Envoy for the Ocean, Ambassador Peter Thomson, and the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs in carrying out the activities.

For more information, visit: https://sdgs.un.org/topics/oceans-and-seas/coas