United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Egypt

Comments on the Working Document of SDGs

Cluster 1 / Focus area 1: Poverty eradication and promoting equality
1- Poverty eradication:

Suggested goal:
Eradicate poverty in all its forms

Suggested targets:
- Eliminate extreme poverty (defined as income below x dollars a person a day) altogether by 2030.
- Drastically reduce other levels and forms of poverty also by 2030. (indicators of poverty line to be agreed on, and also the rate of reduction).
- Promote universal access to social services and enhance social protection for all people.
- Enhance the assets owned by the poor and low income groups and their access to productive facilities such as credit, land, transport and technology.
- Address the root causes and challenges of poverty through integrated, coordinated and coherent strategies at all.
- Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people
- Providing social protection and social protection floors as relevant to reduce vulnerabilities of the poor, including children, youth, the unemployed, migrants, persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, and older persons;
- pursuing sustained and inclusive economic growth;

Related Means of Implementation:
- Ensure predictable and adequate international financing for developing countries requiring assistance to implement poverty reduction policies and programmes, including the fulfillment of the commitments by developed countries to provide 0.7 per cent of gross national income (GNI) for official development assistance (ODA) for developing countries, as well as a target of 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of gross national product for official development assistance to the least developed countries
- The UN, its agencies and other international organisations to establish mechanisms to “address the root causes and challenges of poverty through integrated, coordinated and coherent strategies at all levels” (Rio20, P106);
- The UN and other international organisations as well as developed countries in their national policies to establish policies and strategies that create or enhance “an enabling environment aimed at expanding the development opportunities of developing countries” (in line with Rio20, P106).
- To ensure that adequate policy space is given to developing countries by International organisations and rules to enable developing countries to establish and implement their policies in favour of poverty eradication and interests of the poor.
- Ensure that global trade and investment rules are designed and implemented with the objective of addressing pro-actively the specific constraints faced by developing countries, including the effective operationalisation of the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, especially those facing increasing marginalization in the globalising world economy.”


2- Promote equality
Suggested goal:
Reduce Inequality and promote social equity and protection

Suggested targets:
- Ensure that wealth and income as well as the benefits of economic growth are distributed fairly and equitably and to improve the situation of income distribution and social equity.
- Establish targets for minimum social spending in government budgets (e.g. 10 per cent of GDP).
- National plans and measures to expand the economic assets and opportunities of the poor and the bottom 40% of the population.
- Work towards decent wages and incomes for workers in the formal and informal sectors and agricultural producers.
- Ensure that the rural poor have opportunities to increase their income through measures such as a scheme to promote or ensure a minimum level of rural employment.
- Countries to consider adopting a social protection framework and specific policies on various aspects such as provision of health services, food, employment, etc.
- empowering and inclusion of groups living in vulnerable situations, indigenous peoples, Women, persons with disabilities, older persons, children and youth
- ensuring equality of economic opportunities for all
- working towards inclusive societies that respect and promote cultural diversity
- Establish measures at global level to reduce inequality among countries.
- promoting an open, rules-based, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system;
- curbing illicit financial flows;
- phasing out harmful subsidies;
- pursuing policies for planned, well managed and legal migration;
- reducing the transaction costs of remittances;
- developing policies to mitigate brain drain;
Related Means of Implementation:
- Provision of financial resources to developing countries for programmes to reduce inequalities and promote social equity and protection.
- Initiate studies on the forms, trends and causes of inequality among countries and suggest measures to reduce the inequality.
- Establish or expand mechanisms and revenue generation schemes that tax selected luxury goods or services, with the revenues being used for improving the situation of the poor and vulnerable groups in developing countries (eg health, food, education).
- International organisations to adopt reduction of international inequality as an objective of their institution and to take measures to address this problem.
- International organisations and developed countries to take measures to implement and enhance the special and differential treatment for developing countries and the market access and other benefits to LDCs and low income countries in the areas of trade, finance and technology transfer, aimed at reducing the income and capacity/wealth gap between developed and developing countries.


Cluster 2/ Focus Areas 5, 4 and 3 : Gender equality and women's empowerment, Education, Employment and decent work for all, Health and population dynamics
1- Gender Equality and Women's empowerment:

Suggested goal:
Achieve gender equality and women empowerent

Suggested targets:
- End discrimination against women in political, economic, and public life
- Prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls.
- Ensuring equal access to education at all levels;
- Ensuring equal employment opportunities for women and equal pay for equal work;
- Equal access to assets and resources
- Ensuring equal participation of women in decision-making in public and private institutions;
- Ending child, early and forced marriage;

Related Means of Implementation:

2- Education
Suggested goal:
Achieve universal access to quality education at all levels

Suggested targets:
- Achieving universal, free primary and secondary education for girls and boys;
- ensuring equitable access to education at all levels with focus on the most marginalized;
- achieving high completion rates at all levels of education for both girls and boys;
- providing universal early childhood education;
- ensuring effective learning outcomes at all levels and imparting knowledge, developing entrepreneurship skills, life skills and vocational and technical training to respond to labor market demands; providing information and technology skills
- Achieve a minimum internationally comparable standard of education at national level by 2030 and improve minimum performance of students to be at least in par with international benchmarks;
- Increase skills enhancement programs for all, including youth, elderly and persons with disabilities
- Achieve universal adult literacy and lifelong learning opportunities for all, and raise adult literacy to a minimum of 60-70% by 2030
- Raise share of public expenditure in education to a minimum of x% of national budget by 2020.

Related Means of Implementation:
Promote global partnerships in the field of education

3- Employment and decent work for all
Suggested goal:
Create decent jobs

Suggested targets:
- promoting full employment through macroeconomic policy;
- achieve sustained and inclusive economic growth underpinned by job creation
- Significant increase of value addition and decent industrial sector jobs in developing countries;
- promote trade as an engine of sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth and sustainable development, in particular its contribution to boosting job creation
- addressing youth unemployment through policies and strategies aimed at providing young people with access to decent and productive work;
- developing entrepreneurship skills, life skills and vocational and technical training to respond to labor market demands; providing information and technology skills;
- facilitating the participation of women in the labour force;
- provide social security and protection including for those retired from the labour force, persons with disabilities, the unemployed, children and youth, and older persons;
- ensuring decent wages aligned with productivity;
- supporting small- and medium-sized enterprises;
- increasing access to credit to the youth, women and other people in vulnerable situations;
- promoting appropriate job-rich technology applications;
- protecting the rights of migrant workers and displaced persons in compliance with the ILO norms and standards

Related Means of Implementation:
- Adopt a global objective and strategy of full employment.
- Developed countries when formulating their national policies should fully take account of the impacts on employment in developing countries.
- International institutions and aid agencies should consider the impact on employment in their policies and policy advice to developing countries.
- In the formulation of international trade and investment rules, priority to be given to the objective of employment generation and account should be taken of the impacts on employment and decent work in developing countries.

4- Health and population dynamics
Suggested goal:
Ensure quality, adequate, affordable, accessible and comprehensive health services for all

Suggested targets:
- Achieve universal health coverage;
- strengthening health systems, including through increased health financing, development and training of the health workforce, and access to safe, affordable, effective and quality medicines, vaccines and medical technologies;
- ensuring affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all;
- dissemination of medical and public health knowledge, including traditional knowledge;
- elimination of preventable child and maternal deaths;
- significant reduction of child morbidity;
- End the HIV/AIDS epidemic;
- preventing and treating communicable diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, and neglected tropical diseases;
- addressing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) inter alia through promoting healthy diets and lifestyles, including for youth; tackling environmental causes of disease;
- providing for the health needs of persons with disabilities, youth, migrants, and ageing populations;
- eliminating harmful practices and reducing road accidents;
- Affordable access to prevention, treatment, care and support related to non-communicable diseases, especially cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes (Rio20, P141)
- Establish or strengthen multisectoral national policies for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (Rio20, P141)
- Systematically consider population trends and projections in national, rural and urban development strategies and policies (Rio20, P144)
- Provide health and hygiene education and to ensure universal access to safe drinking water and universal access to sanitary measures of excreta disposal, thereby markedly reducing waterborne diseases such as cholera and schistosomiasis and reducing:
• By the year 20xx, the number of deaths from childhood diarrhea in developing countries by 50 to 70 per cent;
• By the year 20xx, the incidence of childhood diarrhea in developing countries by at least 25 to 50 per cent (Agenda 21, Ch. 6, Obj. 6.12e)

Related Means of Implementation:
- Ensure that in the context of the right to health and the need for developing countries to have affordable access to affordable medicines, TRIPS flexibilities can and should be used by developing countries to obtain, use and produce affordable generic medicines, and measures can be explored to improve on this situation.
- Respect the right to use, to the fullest extent, the provisions contained in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement), the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, the decision of the General Council of the World Trade Organization of 30 August 2003 on the implementation of paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration, and, when formal acceptance procedures are completed, the amendment to article 31 of the TRIPS Agreement, which provide flexibilities for the protection of public health, and in particular to promote access to medicines for all and encourage the provision of assistance to developing countries in this regard (Rio20, P142)
- Further collaboration and cooperation at the national and international levels to strengthen health systems through increased health financing, recruitment, development and training and retention of the health workforce, through improved distribution and access to safe, affordable, effective and quality medicines, vaccines and medical technologies, and by improving health infrastructure (Rio20, P143)
- Promote global partnerships in the field of health



Cluster 3/ Focus Areas 6 and 2: Water and Sanitation, Sustainable agriculture, food security and nutrition
1- Water and sanitation:

Suggested goal:
Secure access to water and sanitation for all

Suggested targets:
- ensuring access to safe and affordable drinking water and adequate sanitation for all;
- providing adequate facilities and infrastructure, for safe drinking water and sanitation systems in all areas;
- extending wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse;
- improving water-use efficiency;
- Promote integrated water resources management at national and basin-levels and ensure trans-boundary co-operation on the basis of international law and the principle of no harm;
- expanding water-related vocational training at all levels;
- protecting and restoring water-linked ecosystems like mountains, watersheds and wetlands;
- eliminating the pollution and dumping of toxic materials in water bodies, and protecting aquifers;
- eliminating of invasive alien species in water bodies;
- investing in water harvesting technologies;
- reducing risks and impacts of water-related disasters;
- reduce the number of countries facing water scarcity and the number of people under water poverty line;
- Address floods, droughts and water scarcity,
- Address the balance between water supply and demand, including, where appropriate, non-conventional water resources, and to mobilize financial resources and investment in infrastructure for water and sanitation services, in accordance with national priorities.


Related Means of Implementation:
Support efforts in developing countries on water and sanitation activities and programmes, through provision of financial resources, capacity-building and technology transfer


2- Food security and nutrition:

Suggested goal:
Eliminate hunger, promote sustainable agriculture and achieve food security

Suggested targets:
- ensuring year-round access by all to affordable, adequate, safe and nutritious food;
- ending child malnutrition and stunting;
- increasing agricultural productivity, including through adequate irrigation, seeds and fertilisers, while in parallel halting and reversing land degradation, drought and desertification;
- improving efficiency of water use in agriculture;
- eliminating use of toxic chemicals;
- enhancing all forms of agricultural biodiversity;
- promoting indigenous and sustainable farming and fishing practices;
- strengthening resilience of farming systems and food supplies to climate change;
- increased investment and support to research and development on sustainable agricultural technologies;
- reducing post-harvest crop losses and food waste along food supply chains;
- addressing excessive price volatility, including through market information and oversight on commodity markets;
- Boost productive capacity of small farmers in developing countries through proper functioning of markets, storage, rural infrastructure, research, post-harvest practices, etc.
- Devote a significant part of national agricultural budget to sustainable agriculture practices in crops, livestock and the marine sector including through ecological processes that support food production systems and research and extension work among farmers for environmentally sound production systems;
- Ensure access in rural areas to basic resources and infrastructure services ( land, water, sanitation, modern energy, transport, and advisory services) by 2030;
- Ensure the extension of better farming and fishing practices and innovative and sustainable technologies by2030;
- Increase market access for agricultural products from developing countries by 2030;
- Ensure the Agricultural research, with emphasis placed on research development, knowledge sharing and management and technology dissemination and adoption;
- Significantly increase the share and effectiveness of public expenditure for sustainable agriculture development;
- Ensure an equitable multilateral trade system that promote rural development and food security;

Related Means of Implementation:
- Ensure public financing and transfer of appropriate technology by developed countries which is needed for the adoption of sustainable agriculture and to put in place the required infrastructure, communications and other enabling conditions. (G77 statement at OWG agriculture session, Para 18)
- Ensure developing countries obtain adequate international support through finance and technology as well as institution building and capacity building, in implementing national level SDGs on rural development and agriculture
- Increase the scale of the work to promote sustainable agriculture practices by the Rome-based UN agencies (FAO, WFP, IFAD); this should include technical support to enable countries to transition to and prioritize sustainable agriculture, and appropriate policy advice that supports its implementation
- Regulate commodity markets to curb speculation and address food price volatility
- Introduce effective international and national regulation over the operation of commodity markets to address food price volatility and speculative activities (Such regulation should address the root causes of excessive food price volatility, including its structural causes, as emphasized in Para 116 of The Future We Want)
- Manage the risks linked to high and excessively volatile prices and their consequences for global food security and nutrition, as well as for smallholder farmers and poor urban dwellers (Rio20, P116)
- Phasing out of agricultural subsidies in developed countries
- Eliminate by 20xx all export subsidies in developed countries (in line with WTO Hong Kong Declaration 2005, which agreed on an elimination target year of 2013)
- Substantially and effectively phase out trade distorting subsidies in developed countries by x% by 20xx (in line with WTO Doha Declaration 2001) (Reference: Para 118 of The Future We Want)
- Establish concrete measures and rules to put into effect the principle that developing countries be enabled to promote food security, farmers’ livelihoods and rural development in the multilateral trade rules, as well as in other trade agreements
- Reaffirm the prime importance of food security in developing countries (Rio+20 para 108) and that trade rules and negotiations have to recognise and respect this priority, as well as to promote the livelihoods and incomes of small farmers in developing countries
- Increase in international funding including aid to agriculture, particularly sustainable agriculture, in developing countries
- Increase international funding for developing countries to develop their agriculture production in a sustainable way and to improve their food security situation (Para 110-113 of The Future We Want)
- Provide developing countries adequate policy space, including in conditions for loans and aid, to support their agriculture sector and their farmers through various measures such as credit, marketing, storage, processing, provision of agricultural inputs, land reform and land improvement measures, and measures to make agriculture more sustainable through improved sustainable agriculture methods
- Avoid rules that create barriers to small farmers’ access and use of seeds and other agricultural inputs, for example the patenting by international companies of seeds or genetic resources that originate in developing countries.

Cluster 4/ Focus Areas 8 and 9: Economic Growth, Industrialization, Infrastructure, Energy

1- Economic growth:

Suggested goal:
Achieve sustained inclusive economic growth

Suggested targets:
- enhancing macroeconomic policy coordination;
- fostering conducive regulatory and fiscal systems to promote sustainable development;
- encouraging structural transformation towards higher productivity sectors and activities;
- substantially improving energy and resource productivity of economic activities;
- promoting entrepreneurship, small and medium scale enterprises, and innovation;
- creating productive, well-paid jobs;
- promoting investments in infrastructure such as roads, railways, ports, electricity, and communications;
- strengthening productive capacities in all countries with a particular focus on LDCs, including through technological upgrading and value addition;
- promoting an open, rules-based, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system;
- promoting trade facilitation and market access for developing countries, and particularly preferential market access for LDCs;
- ensuring debt sustainability;
- facilitating international technology cooperation and technology transfer, particularly for environmentally sound technologies;
- Growth rate in income of median citizen to be at least equal to the overall per capita income growth rate in each country (as a measurement of inclusiveness of growth)
- Design and implementation of growth policies should incorporate elements of social inclusiveness (especially benefits to the poor and vulnerable), economic inclusiveness (promotion of small and medium enterprises and small farmers) and environmental sustainability.


Related Means of Implementation:
- Developing countries to be provided with international financing to enable them to implement growth and development strategies.
- “Fulfilment of all commitments related to official development assistance” (Rio20, P258).
- “Ensuring that developing countries have steady and predictable access to adequate financing from all sources to promote sustainable development” (Rio20, P262).
- International trade and investment rules should be designed to promote growth and development of developing countries, especially low income countries.
- Developing countries that are unable to meet the growth targets on their own should be assisted through international action such as debt relief, trade preferences and aid.
- International agencies and aid agencies to support developing countries to build their productive capacity in a sustained way to enable them to achieve sustained economic growth.
- Commitments by developed countries to support efforts in developing countries on water and sanitation activities and programmes, through provision of financial resources, capacity-building and technology transfer
- Establishing a UN Global Technology Facilitation Mechanism



2- Industrialisation, infrastructure:

Suggested goal:
Achieve industrial development, infrastructure growth, and technological progress

Suggested targets:
- ensuring adequate policy space for industrial development;
- advancing sustainable industrial development based on energy- and resource-efficient and environmentally sound industrial processes, including phase out of harmful chemicals, waste and pollution, minimizing material use and maximizing material recovery, with technology cooperation and transfer to support such development;
- strengthening institutions that support industrial production, technological upgrading and value addition;
- investment in sound infrastructure;
- strengthening productive capacities, with particular reference to industrial sectors;
- creation of decent industrial sector jobs;
- encouraging industrial entrepreneurship and enterprise formation;
- enhancing science and math, engineering and technical skills;
- ensuring favourable market access for industrial products and processed commodities of developing countries;
- promoting new industries that supply goods and services for low-income consumers as well as environmentally sustainable products and services
- Increased domestic processing of raw materials and using them as a basis for manufacturing in developing countries so as to increase value added for developing countries.
- Achieving economic diversification so as to avoid dependence on exports of a few commodities in developing countries.
- Improve and upgrade technological capability in developing countries as an essential component of industrial development.
- Promote endogenous technology development and innovation in developing countries.
- promote trade as an engine of sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth and sustainable development, in particular its contribution to boosting job creation
- developing entrepreneurship skills, life skills and vocational and technical training to respond to labor market demands; providing information and technology skills
- ensure that the outcomes of research and knowledge creation, including traditional knowledge systems, are shared and effectively integrated in development programmes
- provision of infrastructure for access to modern energy services, as well as provision of reliable and sustainable transport and communications, including road and rail links, ports and ICT connectivity;
- due account for environmental and social impacts of existing and planned infrastructure from a lifecycle perspective;
- improving water supply systems, developing irrigation and developing sewerage and wastewater treatment;
- proper use of urban space and related infrastructure planning;
- addressing trans-border infrastructure needs for trade and related challenges facing developing countries;
- accessibility to persons with disabilities;
- planning and building resilient infrastructure including for disaster risk reduction;


Related Means of Implementation:
- Strengthen international cooperation, including the provision of financial resources, capacity-building and technology transfer to developing countries” (Rio20, P58f) in support of developing countries’ industrial development objectives.
- Enable developing countries to have affordable access to technology in order to facilitate their industrial development, and establish a UN Global technology facilitation mechanism.
- Ensure that trade rules and negotiations are consistent with the objectives of developing countries for industrial development and technological progress.
- Increase investments in infrastructure
- Developing countries to be provided with international financing, technology and capacity building to enable them to develop their infrastructure.


3- Energy:

Suggested goal:
Achieve universal access to modern, affordable and efficient energy services for all

Suggested targets:
- ensuring universal access to modern energy services; provide energy services in a reliable, affordable, economically viable and socially and environmentally acceptable manner in developing countries;
- deployment of cleaner, including low- or zero-emissions energy technologies;
- increasing the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, including by providing policy space and necessary incentives for renewable energy;
- improving energy efficiency in buildings, industry, agriculture and transport;
- building capacity and transferring modern energy technologies;
- mobilizing finance to invest in modern energy infrastructure;
- sharing knowledge and experience on appropriate regulatory frameworks and enabling environments;
- promoting partnerships on sustainable energy;
- Creating enabling environments that facilitate public and private sector investment in relevant and needed cleaner energy technologies.
- Promote incentives in favour of, and removing disincentives to, energy efficiency and the diversification of the energy mix, including promoting research and development in all countries, including developing countries. (Rio 20).
- Refrain from and reduce excessive and wasteful consumption of energy, especially in developed countries.
- Effective measures, both at the national and international levels, to address national energy deficits through the development of new energy sources, especially renewable energies; and through the development of appropriate technologies relating to energy.
- Increase the institutional and system capacities of developing countries, particularly LDCs and energy-poor countries, to enable their access to and benefits from financing, technology, knowledge and partnerships in the field of energy.


Related Means of Implementation:
- Strengthen international cooperation, including the provision of financial resources, capacity-building and technology transfer to developing countries” (Rio20, P58f) in support of developing countries.
- Enable developing countries to have affordable access to clean energy technology, and establish a UN Global technology facilitation mechanism.
- Increase international cooperation to remove barriers that developing countries face or may face, in obtaining access to clean energy technologies.
- Encourage the use of TRIPS flexibilities in relation to promoting the use of environmentally sound energy technologies.


Cluster 5/ Focus areas 10, 11 and 12: Sustainable cities and human settlements, Promote sustainable consumption and production, Climate

1- Sustainable cities and human settlements:

Suggested goal:
Promoting Sustainable Human Settlements: Cities and Rural Areas

Suggested targets:
- eradicating and preventing slum conditions, including by provision of adequate and affordable housing, infrastructure and basic services;
- providing access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport, improving road safety and urban air quality;
- improving waste and wastewater management;
- strengthening resilience to climate change and natural disasters;
- access to safe public spaces and services; enhancing capacities for urban planning; Promote urban sustainable development policies that support inclusive housing and social services; a safe and healthy living environment for all; affordable and sustainable transport and energy; promotion of safe and green urban spaces; safe and clean drinking water and sanitation; healthy air quality; generation of decent jobs; and improved urban planning and slum upgrading. (Rio 20, P135).
- strengthening positive economic and social links between cities and peri-urban and rural areas, and Work towards improving the quality of human settlements, including the living and working conditions of both urban and rural dwellers in the context of poverty eradication so that all people have access to basic services, housing and mobility. (Rio 20 P 134).
- promoting accessible cities for people with disabilities;
- protecting and safeguarding the world’s cultural and natural heritage, including ancient archaeological sites, intangible and underwater heritage, museum collections, oral traditions and other forms of heritage;
- Promote sustainable management of waste and underline the importance of considering disaster risk reduction, resilience and climate risks in urban planning (Rio20, P135)..
- Promote sustainable development policies in rural areas that support livelihoods, decent income and food security; improvement of housing conditions, including access to clean water and sanitation; a safe and healthy living environment; and access to modern energy.
- Support rural communities in disaster risk reduction, climate resilience and climate adaptation.
- Promote access to transportation for both urban and rural dwellers, as well as sustainable transport systems, especially the promotion of public transport.

Related Means of Implementation:
- Developing countries to be provided with international financing to enable them to promote sustainable human settlements


2- Sustainable Consumption and Production:

Suggested goal:
Promote Sustainable consumption and production

Suggested targets:
- All countries should promote sustainable consumption and production patterns, with developed countries taking the lead and with all countries benefiting from the process, taking into account the Rio principles.
- Implement the 10-Year Framework of Programme (10YFP) on sustainable consumption and production with the provision of new and additional financial resources by, and transfer of environmentally sound technologies from, developed countries to developing countries
- Setting national targets and indicators for progress on moving towards sustainable consumption and production methods and monitor the results and analyse lessons learnt, as part of their leadership role.
- significantly improving energy efficiency and materials
- productivity;
- sustainable supply chains;
- preventing, reducing, recycling and reusing waste;
- reducing waste in food production and consumption, including through traditional knowledge;
- sound management of chemicals and hazardous materials in accordance with agreed frameworks;
- sustainable buildings and construction;
- awareness raising, education for creating a culture of
- sustainable lifestyles;
- fostering collaboration among the academic, scientific and technological community to advance technologies for sustainable consumption and production;
- sustainable public procurement;
- sustainable tourism promotion;

Related Means of Implementation:
- Review trade and investment rules at the global, regional and bilateral levels to remove impediments to, and ensure enabling environments for, sustainable production and consumption
- Strengthen international cooperation, including the provision of financial resources, capacity-building and technology transfer to developing countries”

3- Climate Change:

Suggested goal:
Promote adaptation to and mitigation of climate change, according to UNFCCC provisions to achieve its ultimate objective

Suggested targets:
- reaffirming and reinforcing existing international commitments, such as limiting the increase in global average temperature;
- building resilience and adaptive capacity in all developing countries;
- introducing, inter alia, economic incentives for investments in sustainable solutions in infrastructure and industry;
- developing sustainable, climate-resilient development strategies and plans;
- reducing the damage caused by climate-induced and other natural hazards through disaster risk reduction;
- improving education and awareness raising on climate change;
- promoting sustainable consumption and production patterns, with developed countries taking the lead and with all countries benefiting from the process, taking into account the Rio principles;
- significantly improving energy efficiency and materials productivity;


Related Means of Implementation:
- The developed countries shall provide new and additional financial resources to meet the agreed full costs incurred by developing countries in complying with their obligations under UNFCCC. They shall also provide such financial resources, including for the transfer of technology, needed by the developing countries to meet the agreed full incremental costs of implementing measures. The implementation of these commitments shall take into account the need for adequacy and predictability in the flow of funds and the importance of appropriate burden sharing among the developed countries;
- The developed countries shall also assist the developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in meeting costs of adaptation to those adverse effects;
- The developed countries shall take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate the transfer of, or access to, environmentally to enable them to implement the provisions of the UNFCCC. In this process, the developed country Parties shall support the development and enhancement of endogenous capacities and technologies of developing countries. International Organisations in a position to do so may also assist in facilitating the transfer of such technologies;
- Full implementation of Bali Action Plan;
- Establishment of a UN Global Technology facilitation mechanism

Cluster 6/ Focus Areas 13 and 14: Conservation and sustainable use of marine resources, oceans and seas, Ecosystems and biodiversity

1- Conservation and sustainable use of marine resources, oceans and seas:

Suggested goal:
Enhance the quality, resilience and protection of the environment; and promote sustainable exploitation, use and management of marine resources

Suggested targets:
- reducing marine pollution and debris
- halting destruction of marine habitat including ocean acidification;
- promoting sustainable exploitation of marine resources;
- regulating harvesting of straddling fish stocks;
- addressing illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, and destructive fishing practices;
- encouraging sustainable small-scale fisheries;
- eliminating harmful subsidies that promote fishing overcapacity;
- ensuring full implementation of regional and international regimes governing oceans and seas


2- Ecosystem and biodiversity:

Suggested goal:
Combat desertification and land degradation, mitigate drought and promote sustainable management of land and oceanic spaces

Suggested targets:
- protecting threatened species and halting loss of biodiversity;
- stopping poaching and trafficking of endangered species;
- maintaining the genetic diversity of both farmed species and their wild relatives;
- ensuring fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the utilization of genetic resources;
- promoting sustainable forest management;
- restoring degraded forest ecosystems and increasing area of protected forests;
- supporting measures to protect mountain ecosystems;
- Zero Net Land Degradation by 2030
- All countries have in place sustainable and management policies built on ecosystem approach by 2030
- All drought prone countries develop and implement drought preparedness policies by 2030
- building on synergies and minimizing trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and sustainable agriculture, food security, livelihoods and nutrition
- Achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets by 2020
- reinforce incentives for developing countries to advance sustainable forests management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks

Related Means of Implementation:
Commitments to provide financial resources, technology transfer and capacity building for developing countries to assist them to fulfill their goals and targets in relation to these issues.


Cluster 7/ Focus Area 15: Means of implementation and Global partnership for development

Suggested goal:
Scale up Global partnership for development

Suggested targets:
- further progress on development-supportive trade reforms within an open, rules-based multilateral trading system; Ensuring that trade and trade rules work to the benefit of developing countries and to help meet their development objectives;
- recommitment by developed countries to meet ODA targets on an agreed timetable, and ensure the provision of adequate financial resources for sustainable development of developing countries to enable them to achieve SDGs, including the fulfillment of the commitments by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national product for official development assistance (ODA);
- Ensure developing countries achieve debt sustainability through debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring
- Regulation of financial markets to ensure global financial system stability
- Reforming the international monetary system to support sustainable development
- Establish and effectively implement a legally binding multilateral code of conduct for TNCs to secure social responsibility and accountability and prevent restrictive business practices
- Cut Illicit Financial Flows (IFFs) by 50% by 2020; halt flows by 2030, and repatriate ill-gotten wealth in foreign banks by 2025
- enhancing accountability in development cooperation based on agreed principles;
- mobilizing additional financial resources from multiple sources;
- reducing the transaction costs of remittances;
- enhancing scientific and technological cooperation involving developing countries and technology transfer to developing countries, and establish UN Global technology facilitation mechanism;
- strengthening capacity building efforts for developing countries and knowledge sharing and technical cooperation among all countries through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation;
- strengthening capacities for tax-collection, reducing tax evasion;
- strengthening systems of domestic savings;
- improving efficiency of public spending, reducing corruption;

Related Means of Implementation
1. Establish effective regulation and supervision over financial institutions and markets, including control over international capital flows and private sector borrowing abroad.
- Use of macro-prudential measures, drawing on the standards set in relevant international organizations and adapting them to their own specific circumstances and needs; and use of prudential, market-based and direct controls over capital inflows and outflows as and when needed with a view to preventing unsustainable balance of payments deficits, debt accumulation and crisis.
- Pursuit of financial stability as well as price stability as a key objective of monetary policy.
- Use Central Bank instruments affecting the availability of liquidity and interest rates to prevent build-up of credit, property and stock market bubbles.
- Increase access of the poor to credit and financial services.
- Use state-owned banks and encourage privately owned financial institutions to provide financial services to the poor at affordable costs. Encourage community banking by setting indicators and constraints on geographical diversification of activities of banks to promote lending and payments services to all segments of the society.
- Ensure small producers (SMEs and farmers) have affordable access to credit and financial services.
Development-oriented trade regime
2. Ensuring that trade and trade rules work to the benefit of developing countries and to help meet their development objectives
- Reaffirming the primary importance of the multilateral trading system embodied in WTO
- Review multilateral rules and agreements as well as trade and investment bilateral agreements with a view to improving the policy space in developing countries in pursuit of the above national objectives
- Discouraging proliferation of bilateral FTAs that encroach on policy space of developing countries and divert trade from the multilateral arena
- Ensuring that trade and investment agreements enable rather than discourage or detract from policy space in developing countries that is required for their development
- Reaffirming that agriculture is the sector where there is most trade distorting, express concern that domestic support in developed countries are maintained at very high levels (OECD data that this level has now crossed the $400 billion level), call for elimination of export subsidies in developed countries and very significant reductions in domestic supports in developed countries.
- Reaffirming the prime importance of food security in developing countries and that trade rules and negotiations have to recognise and respect this priority, as well as to promote the livelihoods and incomes of small farmers in developing countries.
- Reaffirming the need for improved market access for products of developing countries into the markets of developed countries
- Supporting the proposals by LDCs for increasing their duty free quota free market access to developed countries with associated improvements to rules of origin for their products, and the quick phasing out of cotton subsidies.
- Maintaining the development dimensions and concerns in the Doha Round and on that basis to continue the negotiations in WTO until their successful conclusion
- Providing for cross-border labour mobility and competition over jobs for labour services to be delivered within national territories as under GATS Mode 4
- Eliminate exports subsidies for agricultural products and restrictions over transfer of technology in advanced economies
- Refrain from promulgating and applying any unilateral economic, financial or trade measures not in accordance with international law and the Charter that impede the full achievement of economic and social development, particularly in developing countries (Rio20, P26)

Provision of financial resources to developing countries for SDG fulfilment
3. Ensure the provision of adequate financial resources for sustainable development of developing countries to enable them to fulfil their SDGs
- Access of developing countries to steady, predictable and adequate financing from all sources to promote sustainable development (Rio20, P262)
- Fulfillment of all commitments related to official development assistance, including the commitments by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national product for official development assistance to developing countries by 2015, as well as a target of 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of gross national product for official development assistance to the least developed countries (Rio20, P258).
- donor countries should take all necessary and appropriate measures to raise the rate of aid disbursements in order to meet their existing commitments (Rio20, P258)
- those developed countries that have not yet done so to make additional concrete efforts towards the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national product for official development assistance to developing countries, including the specific target of 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of gross national product for official development assistance to the least developed countries, in accordance with their commitments (Rio20, P258)
- all donors to establish, as soon as possible, rolling indicative timetables that illustrate how they aim to reach their goals, in accordance with their respective budget allocation process (Rio20, P258)
- mobilizing greater domestic support in developed countries towards the fulfilment of their commitments, including by raising public awareness, providing data on the development impact of aid provided and demonstrating tangible results (Rio20, P258)
- improve the quality of official development assistance and to increase its development impact, increase programme-based approaches, use country systems for activities managed by the public sector, reduce transaction costs and improve mutual accountability and transparency, and all donors to untie aid to the maximum extent (Rio20, P259)
- make development assistance more effective and predictable by providing developing countries with regular and timely indicative information on planned support in the medium term (Rio20, P259)
External debt sustainability for developing countries
4. Ensure developing countries achieve debt sustainability through debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring
- Establish impartial and orderly workout procedures for international sovereign debt. This mechanism is aimed to prevent meltdown in DCs facing balance-of-payments and debt crises and replace ad hoc, disorderly and often chaotic negotiations between insolvent debtors and their creditors in order to safeguard the interests of both sides and to remove the legal vacuum that allows the so-called vulture funds to seek unjustified benefits at the expense of both debtors and creditors
- Provide other assistance to countries to prevent debt distress situation and to manage debt problems.
- Provision of debt relief to developing countries
- Improve the definition and terms for debt sustainability and link these to developing countries’ financial needs in relation to their fulfilment of MDGs and SDGs.
- Automatic moratorium on debt payments of countries facing natural calamities/disasters (including from climate change, as part of helping them cope with loss and damage).
Regulation of financial markets to ensure global financial system stability
5. Strengthen regulation of financial markets and institutions to ensure global financial stability and contribute to financial stability at national level
- Regulation of capital flows to prevent or minimise destabilising and volatile large cross-border flows of short-term capital, including by encouraging reserve-issuing countries to impose controls over destabilizing capital outflows to developing countries
- Bring systemically important financial institutions (large international banks and rating agencies) under regulation and supervision of an independent multilateral agency
- Control and regulate speculation in the commodities markets, including through ensuring favourable terms for commodity-dependent DCs in contracts with TNCs to enable them to add more value to commodities and obtain more revenues from commodity-related activities
- Regulate systemically important financial institutions and markets, including international banks and rating agencies and markets for commodity derivatives with a view to reducing international financial instability and instability of commodity prices
- Developed countries should fully consider the effects of their financial and monetary policies on developing countries
- Establish a new international agency with full and equal participation of developing countries in order to regulate systemically important financial institutions and international capital flows (neither IMF nor Financial Stability Board qualify for this)

Reform of the international monetary system
6. Reforming the international monetary system to support sustainable development
- Addressing the shortcomings in the exchange rate and the international reserves systems
- Establishing mechanisms to bring greater stability to exchange rates of reserve currencies and prevent competitive devaluations and currency wars, such as those seen during the current crisis.
- Limit large swings of exchange rates among the key reserve currencies including the US dollar, the euro, yen and the pound sterling through coordinated interventions and macroeconomic policy coordination among the countries concerned.”
- Increase the share of the SDR in total international reserves” (currently around 2.4 per cent of total reserves, down from 3.3% in 2009 after a substantial allocation in response to the crisis; could target 10% over 10 years).
Affordable access to technology for developing countries
7. Ensure developing countries have affordable access to technology
- Implement measures to promote, facilitate and finance access to and the development, transfer and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies and corresponding know-how to developing countries, on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, and the creation of a UN global technology facilitation mechanism. (Rio20, P73).
- explore modalities in the relevant forums for enhanced access to environmentally sound technologies by developing countries (Rio20, P270)
- building science and technology capacity (Rio20, P272)
- strengthening international, regional and national capacities in research and technology assessment, especially in view of the rapid development and possible deployment of new technologies that may also have unintended negative impacts, in particular on biodiversity and health, or other unforeseen consequences (Rio20, P275)
- strengthening of technical and scientific cooperation, including North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation (Rio20, P277)
- human resource development, including training, the exchange of experiences and expertise, knowledge transfer and technical assistance for capacity-building, which involves strengthening institutional capacity, including planning, management and monitoring capacities (Rio20, P277)
- continued and focused implementation of the Bali Strategic Plan for Technology Support and Capacity-building, adopted by the United Nations Environment Programme (Rio20, P278)
- participation and representation of men and women scientists and researchers from developing and developed countries in processes related to global environmental and sustainable development assessment and monitoring, with the purpose of enhancing national capabilities and the quality of research for policy- and decision-making processes (Rio20, P279)
- all relevant agencies of the United Nations system and other relevant international organizations to support developing countries and, in particular, the least developed countries in capacity-building for developing resource-efficient and inclusive economies, including by: (a) Sharing sustainable practices in various economic sectors; (b) Enhancing knowledge and capacity to integrate disaster risk reduction and resilience into development plans; (c) Supporting North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation for the transition to a resource-efficient economy; (d) Promoting public-private partnerships (Rio20, P280)
- Identifying and removing barriers to developing countries having better access to technologies
- More effective measures to enable access to a wide range of essential and needed medicines in developing countries
- Affordable access of developing countries to technologies for environmental protection and climate change
- Ensure that the public especially in developing countries have access to knowledge and knowledge products and processes
- Increase and support Developing countries use of TRIPS flexibilities
- Countries taking part in negotiations for free trade agreements and other agreements should not propose TRIPS-plus provisions that limit access to medicines and knowledge and other technologies
- Reforming the international intellectual property regime with a view to facilitating technological catch-up and improving health and education standards and food security in developing countries
Making global economic governance more democratic and effective
7. Improving democratic global economic governance, including through the full and effective participation of all countries, in particular developing countries, in global decision-making (Rio20, P19), achieved by:
- broadening and strengthening the participation of developing countries in international economic decision-making and norm setting, and the reform of the governance of those institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions (Rio20, P92)
- Developing countries having an increased voice, representation and voting power in these institutions, particularly the IMF and the World Bank. (G77 Statement, 13 December 2013)
- Reforming the mandate, operations, governance and democratization of the international financial institutions, significantly increasing the voice, representation and voting power of developing countries (G77, 14 Mar 2013)
- Establish and effectively implement a legally binding multilateral code of conduct for TNCs to secure social responsibility and accountability and prevent restrictive business practices.
- Establish a new international agency with full and equal participation of developing countries in order to regulate systemically important financial institutions and international capital flows” (neither IMF nor Financial Stability Board qualifies for this)
- Strengthen the role of the UN in economic and social affairs and in sustainable development issues.

Mechanism to Monitor and Operationalise Global Partnership
A mechanism should be established as part of the Rio+20 decisions and the Development Agenda post 2015 for monitoring the implementation of the Global Partnership Goal and Targets.
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