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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

2 with 8. Sharing experience on how safe drinking water for 2 billion people is possible with Household Water Treatment and Safe storage (HWTS) at a cost of $8 billion.

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    CONTEXT At least 2 billion people use a water source that is contaminated with faeces (WHO, 2022). Safe drinking water with water kiosks or piped systems cost at least $25 per capita for CapEx so reaching 2 billion people with these options would cost at least $50 billion. A much cheaper, be it intermediate, solution that makes water that people drink safe is HWTS as promoted by the WHO and UNICEF. Our initiative will share three decades of experience on both failures and success with HWTS and present “2 with 8”, a game changing approach to reach 2 billion people with HWTS at a cost of $8 billion. This idea was formulated at the 2022 Stockholm Water Week by a group of people guided by John Cherry, recipient of the 2020 Stockholm water prize. HWTS HWTS options include boiling, chlorine, UV and water filters. Over 80 HWTS products are documented by the organisation CAWST. (CAWST, 2021). The WHO tested products and over 30 comply with performance criteria for removal of turbidity and pathogens (WHO, 2022). Each option has its limitations. Boling cost fuel, Chlorine is eliminates bacteria and viruses but not cryptosporidium, a significant cause of child mortality. It also has a taste if not dosed exactly right. UV does not function with turbidity. Filters are expensive. However in Europe, America and Asia the filter market is booming and a proof that filters are market-based so a product that families are willing to pay for. Besides “inline filters” for piped systems there is a range of table top gravity filters that are attractive, effective and affordable with prices of $20 to $60 and filter capacity of 30 - 100 ltrs/day. Some models also remove viruses. If filters comply with the 3 Cs, (Correct, Consistent, Continuous use) and if combined with improved hygiene, they are very effective in reducing water borne diseases. (Wolf. 2018). LESSONS LEARNED Many HWTS projects failed. For instance in East Africa 900.000 filters were given for free but after some time most filters were not used anymore (IRC, 2011). Reasons include complicated maintenance and as a free gift there was limited ownership by the users. However increasingly there are successes. For example, in Ethiopia a local assembly of several models of household water filters started. High quality filter elements are imported and the plastic containers are produced locally. Cost of the cheapest model is $22 and over 300.000 were sold. NGOs give filters to poor families but also many families pay the full price. Interesting in Ethiopia is that a growing number of water utilities accept that they cannot always deliver safe water e.g. due to power cuts, so families have to store water. As an additional service these utilities now sell filters to customers and others (Foppen. 2019). The local production and actions with utilities were funded with aid money.
    Expected Impact
    2 WITH 8 The expected impact of presenting the idea “2 with 8” is to stimulate action! To show with evidence that with a 1 time grant of around $4 per person, a large part of the SDG.1 target group can have drinking water that is free from biological contamination and protozoa. In case of chemicals like Arsenic or fluor, an option is to collect rainwater just for drinking and use a filter. Actions needed to reach 2 billion people include: 1. Awareness creation Awareness that clear water can still be contaminated, that safe water reduces health related cost, or that a water filter can be paid with the cost of 6 months of bottled water. Awareness needs to be nationwide and for 3 to 5 years on radio, television, social media. An example of such a campaign was in Cambodia. (IDE, 2018) 2. Supply chains In each town there should be shops that sell 3 or more options, so people have a choice. Products should be government approved, comply with the 3Cs and be market- based meaning that supply goes on without NGO or other support. 3. Payment systems Micro credit, pay as you use, group credit. An example can be the Grameen bank 4. Subsidies for the poor An estimated 1 billion people part of the target group of SDG6.1, are so poor that they need support. To avoid market distortion vouchers can be applied. With a voucher of for instance $20 a family goes to the local shop, pay $3 and get a filter worth $23. If they want a filter that cost $33, they pay $13. Households can be divided in those who: A. can afford upfront payment B. need payment in instalments C. cannot pay the full price. Subsidizing the bottom billion is expected to create a commercial supply chain of filters for group A and B and a supply chain for spare parts for all groups. ORGANISATION Realization requires cooperation of Governments, Private sector, NGOs and the Finance sector. No single HWTS business can meet the needs of all these people so the producers of HWTS products could form an alliance similar to the solar light or cookstoves industry to build a dynamic, inclusive, and financially sustainable HWTS industry. FUNDS Funds needed to reach 2 billion people is an estimated $8 billion of which some $2 bln. is for awareness, $1 bln. for supply chains and $5 bln. for vouchers. (200 mln. filters @ $25/filter). Funds could, should? come from parties interested in SDG6.1 and/ or SDGs for health (eg. stunting). A promising (partial) funding source are carbon credits which can be used for awareness creation or supply chain development and in some cases to lower the retail price of a filter. The $8 billion can come from many donors. Governments and NGOs can start small with a village, later a region and if effective scale up to country level.

    Nazava. Basic Water Needs. The Groundwater project, Aqua for All

    Additional information
    Websites of partners References • WHO. 2022 • CAWST 2021. • WHO testing scheme. • IRC. 2011 • Clasen. T. 2015. Cochrane study • Brown. J. 2008. • Foppen. H. • IDE Cambodia 2018. • Wolf. J, Clasen,T, Bartram.J et al. 2018: Impact of drinking water, sanitation and handwashing with soap on childhood diarrhoeal disease: updated meta-analysis and meta-regression. • General info. Heierli. U. 2010; “Marketing safe water systems”.

    Goal 3

    Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

    Goal 3


    By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births

    Maternal mortality ratio


    Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel


    By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births

    Under-five mortality rate


    Neonatal mortality rate


    By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases


    Number of new HIV infections per 1,000 uninfected population, by sex, age and key populations


    Tuberculosis incidence per 100,000 population


    Malaria incidence per 1,000 population


    Hepatitis B incidence per 100,000 population


    Number of people requiring interventions against neglected tropical diseases


    By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being

    Mortality rate attributed to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory disease


    Suicide mortality rate


    Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol


    Coverage of treatment interventions (pharmacological, psychosocial and rehabilitation and aftercare services) for substance use disorders


    Alcohol per capita consumption (aged 15 years and older) within a calendar year in litres of pure alcohol


    By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents

    Death rate due to road traffic injuries


    By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes


    Proportion of women of reproductive age (aged 15-49 years) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods


    Adolescent birth rate (aged 10-14 years; aged 15-19 years) per 1,000 women in that age group


    Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all


    Coverage of essential health services


    Proportion of population with large household expenditures on health as a share of total household expenditure or income


    By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination

    Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution


    Mortality rate attributed to unsafe water, unsafe sanitation and lack of hygiene (exposure to unsafe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) services)


    Mortality rate attributed to unintentional poisoning


    Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate

    Age-standardized prevalence of current tobacco use among persons aged 15 years and older


    Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all


    Proportion of the target population covered by all vaccines included in their national programme

    Total net official development assistance to medical research and basic health sectors

    Proportion of health facilities that have a core set of relevant essential medicines available and affordable on a sustainable basis


    Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States

    Health worker density and distribution


    Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks


    International Health Regulations (IHR) capacity and health emergency preparedness


    Percentage of bloodstream infections due to selected antimicrobial-resistant organisms

    Goal 5

    Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

    Goal 5


    End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere


    Whether or not legal frameworks are in place to promote, enforce and monitor equality and non‑discrimination on the basis of sex


    Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation

    Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by form of violence and by age


    Proportion of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by age and place of occurrence


    Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation

    Proportion of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 18


    Proportion of girls and women aged 15-49 years who have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting, by age


    Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate


    Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age and location


    Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life


    Proportion of seats held by women in (a) national parliaments and (b) local governments


    Proportion of women in managerial positions


    Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences


    Proportion of women aged 15-49 years who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health care


    Number of countries with laws and regulations that guarantee full and equal access to women and men aged 15 years and older to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education


    Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws


    (a) Proportion of total agricultural population with ownership or secure rights over agricultural land, by sex; and (b) share of women among owners or rights-bearers of agricultural land, by type of tenure


    Proportion of countries where the legal framework (including customary law) guarantees women’s equal rights to land ownership and/or control


    Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women

    Proportion of individuals who own a mobile telephone, by sex


    Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels


    Proportion of countries with systems to track and make public allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment

    Goal 6

    Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

    Goal 6


    By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all


    Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services


    By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations


    Proportion of population using (a) safely managed sanitation services and (b) a hand-washing facility with soap and water


    By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally


    Proportion of domestic and industrial wastewater flows safely treated


    Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality


    By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity

    Change in water-use efficiency over time


    Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources


    By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate


    Degree of integrated water resources management 


    Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation


    By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

    Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time


    By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies

    Amount of water- and sanitation-related official development assistance that is part of a government-coordinated spending plan


    Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management


    Proportion of local administrative units with established and operational policies and procedures for participation of local communities in water and sanitation management

    Goal 17

    Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development

    Goal 17


    Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection

    Total government revenue as a proportion of GDP, by source
    Proportion of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes


    Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries

    Net official development assistance, total and to least developed countries, as a proportion of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee donors’ gross national income (GNI)


    Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources


    Additional financial resources mobilized for developing countries from multiple sources 

    Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP


    Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress

    Debt service as a proportion of exports of goods and services


    Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries


    Number of countries that adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for developing countries, including the least developed countries


    Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism


     Fixed Internet broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by speed


    Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed


    Total amount of funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies


    Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology

    Proportion of individuals using the Internet


    Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation


    Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through North-South, South‑South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries


    Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda

    Worldwide weighted tariff-average


    Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020


    Developing countries’ and least developed countries’ share of global exports


    Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access


    Weighted average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States


    Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence

    Macroeconomic Dashboard


    Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development

    Number of countries with mechanisms in place to enhance policy coherence of sustainable development


    Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development 

    Extent of use of country-owned results frameworks and planning tools by providers of development cooperation


    Enhance the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries, in particular developing countries


    Number of countries reporting progress in multi-stakeholder development effectiveness monitoring frameworks that support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals


    Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships 


    Amount in United States dollars committed to public-private partnerships for infrastructure


    By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts


    Statistical capacity indicator for Sustainable Development Goal monitoring

    Number of countries that have national statistical legislation that complies with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics

    Number of countries with a national statistical plan that is fully funded and under implementation, by source of funding


    By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries

    Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries

    Proportion of countries that (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration

    Name Description
    1. Cooperation with the HWTS network that has over 130 members, is coordinated by CAWST and was initiated by the WHO and UNICEF
    2. Share lessons learned in the last 30 years with HWTS products and share experiences of promising programs that can be copied like the program in Ethiopia
    3. Sharing information of funding options like carbon credits
    In-kind contribution
    Collection and sharing of best practices
    In-kind contribution
    A network of SMART Centres in 10 countries, mainly in Africa who can train NGOs and local private sector in a range of HWTS optionscentres and partners, involved in the implementation
    No progress reports have been submitted. Please sign in and click here to submit one.
    Action Network
    water logo
    01 February 2023 (start date)
    31 December 2029 (date of completion)
    MetaMeta Research
    1. Africa
    2. Asia and Pacific
    3. Latin America and the Caribbean
    Other beneficiaries

    Direct: NGOs, others active in HWTS, Members of the HWTS network
    The private sector (SMEs) in several countries who can be trained in the local assembly and sales of HWTS products with a focus on water filters.
    Indirect: People who now drink water contaminated with faeces.

    South Sudan
    South Sudan
    Global Action Plan
    Contact Information