United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

WASH Innovative Financing for The Poorest

UNICEF Indonesia Country Office (
Local / Regional Government

    NTB province initiated a movement to achieve open defecation-free (ODF) status called BASNO. By 2017, only 82.6 per cent of villages and one of 10 districts had achieved ODF status. An opportunity to accelerate the programme emerged when Indonesia Ulema Council (MUI) issued a fatwa (decree) allowing for the mobilization of religious charity funds and alms (ZISWAF) to support the provision of access to water and sanitation for the poorest. The fatwa became a legal basis for National Alms Agency (BAZNAS) to develop a joint programme consisting of interventions to improve access to proper sanitation for the poor and improve inhabitable houses and sanitation facilities.


    The objectives of the interventions are to accelerate progress in achieving ODF status among villages in the province, by focusing on support to the poorest member of the community. The intervention also aims to enhance the capacity and coordination mechanisms of key government institutions, particularly provincial and district working groups and village authorities. BASNO status among the villages is set as a target through a number of activities involving government agencies, BAZNAS, sanitarians, sub-district community health centers, and the community.

    Contribution to SDG Implementation

    This strategy primarily aims to contribute to Goal 6, with two main outputs: increasing the number of villages that have achieved open defecation free status in the province and providing the poorest member of the community with latrine facility and habitable housing. The practice is closely aligned with government priority in eradicating poverty, mainly through the use of government-owned poverty map as a targeting tools and contributes to SDG Goal 1, by addressing the multidimensional poverty.

    Implementation methodologies

    The provincial government, through Bappeda and the working group of Water, Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES) provides the overall leaderships to the programme. To ensure proper targeting, Bappeda developed a provisional village beneficiary list, through consultation with the provincial health office, using a government-owned poverty map as the basis. A work plan is devised to reach selected villages in pilot districts, and the actual implementation is conducted through partnerships between WSES working group and BAZNAS at the district level, as well as village authorities, sanitarians, and community health centres. District-level BAZNAS were assigned to verify provisional beneficiary lists, in collaboration with other authorities. Verification by the district health office was mainly related to the availability of a latrine facility in a household, whereas BAZNAS considered criteria aligned with Islamic law to ensure recipient eligibility. Construction of latrines and house improvements were jointly supervised by village governments, sanitarian, and appropriate health and military personnel. During the first three years, BAZNAS bore all implementation cost, contributing IDR 3.7 billion (USD 253,000) in 2017, IDR 4.5 billion (USD 307,700) in 2018 and 2019; and IDR 5.7 billion (USD 360,000) in 2020. UNICEF provided technical assistance to Bappeda and WSES working group and their coordination with BAZNAS. The districts advocacy is also conducted to encourage the adoption of this innovative financing and promote equity and inclusion in WASH, including capacity building for the WSES working group and programme monitoring and evaluation in 2018.


    In its initial phase in 2017, BAZNAS NTB Province succeeded in renovating 200 units of inhabitable houses and constructing 361 units of family latrines. Throughout the three years of implementation, the intervention has completed renovation of 645 houses and construction of over 880 latrine facilities in 36 villages. Overall, the intervention has benefited over 7,700 residents. In each target districts, intervention is conducted in selected villages, while campaign activities were conducted to increase the participation from non-pilot villages using their own resources. Project locations continued to expand from six villages in six districts to 10 villages across 10 districts. UNICEF received a pledge of appreciation from the governor in 2019 for its contribution to the government-led poverty-reduction programme in supporting BASNO. NTB is acknowledged as a place for regional learning from other provinces about the successful implementation of the BAZNAS Fund for sanitation.

    Factors and Constraints

    The main enabling factor behind the successful implementation is smooth coordination between host government and BAZNAS as donor. NTB Governor circular letter laid a strong foundation for implementation and replication. Provincial government and BAZNAS were actively sharing the good practice, leading to adoption in non-pilot villages. Technical guideline is compiled and disseminated to local stakeholders involving panelists from key ministries and National BAZNAS and to socialize the BAZNAS Index instrument for the sustainability of Clean Water and Sanitation. Major constraint includes the limited government financial contribution.

    Sustainability and replicability

    In 2020, governor issued a circular letter calling on district governments to replicate the programme by using a similar financing innovation approach. To support this commitment, UNICEF supported the drafting of technical guideline that were disseminated in 10 districts/cities. Technical guideline is intended to become a model at the national level. Government of Mataram, Sumbawa, North Lombok, and West Lombok responded have commenced a replication effort. In 2021, blended financing mechanism is jointly created to increase the number of non-government partners and other micro financial institutions, currently adopted by East Lombok district. Bappeda and BAZNAS NTB actively shared their experience at various events, including The Advocacy Horizontal Learning in South Sulawasi Province. District BAZNAS and other charity organizations are encouraged to replicate and align with government programmes on stunting reduction, and village funds social assistance to achieve ODF status.

    COVID-19 Impact

    During the Covid-19 period when implementing BAZNAS funds for the acceleration of ODF, for example data verification activities in the field of the BAZNAS Team, the Health Service Team and the Community health center, Sanitarian Team in the local district together with village officials, continued to carry out this activity by implementing the COVID-19 health protocol.

    This initiative does not yet fulfil the SMART criteria.
    13 July 2017 (start date)
    31 December 2021 (date of completion)
    More information
    Contact Information

    Rostia, WASH Officer UNICEF Kupang Field Office, Indonesia