United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Community Based Total Sanitation


    Despite being the capital city of the 4 largest populated nations, Jakarta has the lowest rate for adequate sanitation facilities in the country. With a huge population (10,177,924 people based on 2017 BPS data), the Jakarta government faces the everyday challenge of maintaining the behavior of its inhabitants to be healthy and clean. One of the main challenges is that around 475,000 people (equivalent to 117,000 households) do not own a septic tank for their toilet facilities. So much so that only 63.55% of toilets owned by Jakarta’s inhabitants is in decent condition. The lack of septic tanks for the remaining toilets causes pollution to the ground water and river. As a result, rivers in Jakarta cannot function as a main water source for the community’s consumption. Additionally, the dense housing conditions in the city and the lack of land become some of the main reason why the septic tanks are not built. As a result, while most houses do have toilets, the feces unfortunately ends up in rivers or sewers. This then polutes the surrounding water sources and air. As a priority, the Jakarta government is now working to achive. 100% Open Defecation Free (ODF).


    • Contributing to reducing morbidity rates for environmentally based diseases (diarrhea, worms, diphtheria, and dengue fever), as a result of changes in community behavior • Increase knowledge and awareness related a personal and environment hygiene • Increased community access to safe and sustainable sanitation and support a healthy environment • Supporting development for the achievement of "Universal Access" related to clean water and sanitation and the achievement of SDGs, especially goal 6. • Increase partnerships, collaboration and participation between parties, including government, NGOs, private sector, and other potential parties

    Contribution to SDG Implementation

    Activities carried out in this program are to support increased access and awareness of the parties so that they are more aware related community hygiene and sanitation. With the increasing awareness of the parties, it could reduce the number of people who defecate randomly, and the environment becomes cleaner and healthier. This program also supports government development programs related clean water and sanitation where the main goal is to fulfill universal access related to clean water and sanitation. This program contributes to the achievement of the SDGs, especially SDGs point 6.

    Implementation methodologies

    There are efforts to accelerate the achievement of 100% Open Defecation Free (ODF) through SIMASKOTA (Sanitation for Jakarta’s People). The program is a multi-stakeholder collaboration initiated by Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) Sinar Mas and the Jakarta city government together with SPEAK Indonesia Consortium and Citra Insan Development Foundation (YPCII) and supported by USAID IUWASH PLUS. The collaboration aims to accelerate the clean sanitation program in Jakarta. SIMASKOTA was implemented in 2 suburbs in Jakarta, namely Tebet Timur (in Tebet sub-district in South Jakarta) and Pademangan Barat in Pademangan (a sub-district in North Jakarta). In Tebet Timur suburbs, the program intervention was focused in the river banks areas inhabited by 3,124 people. Most of the inhabitants owned a toilet facility in their house, but not a septic tank. Meanwhile, the program in Pademangan Barat suburbs was focused in the area inhabited by 3,127 people, with the highest rate of toilets but also without septic tanks. The program is expected to have significant contribution in accelerating the achievement of the universal access to sanitation, in-line with the 2019 and 2030 SDGs target (particularly in Jakarta). Various activities in its implementation cover, socialization, baseline- and end line-survey, capacity building for ODF cadres, development of communal septic tanks and educational workshop. The program has special emphasis on behavioral change on ODF, through education and socialization.


    Through the SIMASKOTA program the target communities have started showing behavioral change related to ODF and supporting the construction of sanitation facilities using their own means. Communal waste water treatment was installed in Tebet Timur benefitting 80 households (209 people). 12-unit toilets and 1-unit mini IPAL biofilter benefitting 18 households and 20 households respectively. The program helped to reduce ODF practice and as a mean towards cleaner river and environment. IPAL management is also carried out independently by the community every month.

    Factors and Constraints

    • Multi-stakeholder collaboration was key in implementing the program intensively. In this context the collaboration is between APP Sinar Mas, SPEAK, YPCII, community, villages, health center and city and provincial government has been crucial. • A comprehensive initial/base data regarding geographic, demographic and geological condition was also crucial. • Social preparation for the community had to be completed before the program was implemented in order to gain full support from the community and the relevant stakeholders. • The technology chosen had to have passed technical test and assessment by experts as part of the program’s quality assurance against the result/output.

    Sustainability and replicability

    A Community-based Total Sanitation (STBM) program was one of the government’s priority programs to achieve universal access to clean water and sanitation. There were still more locations where ODF could still be implemented, whether in Jakarta or in other cities in Indonesia. Multi-stakeholder commitment and collaboration is key to changing the paradigm. The potential to scale up and/or replicate the program is significant, as there are schemes according to Presidential Decree No. 16/2018 whereby central government could facilitate the implementation of STBM programs initiated by the community. These schemes have been recommended to the city governments throughout Indonesia.

    COVID-19 Impact

    With the SIMASKOTA program, the community are encouraged to continuously care about their personal hygiene and protect the environment by implementing a clean and healthy lifestyle. To accelerate the program in achieving Universal Access on clean water and sanitation, beside the SIMASKOTA, other government programs related to clean water and sanitation were also implemented. This is a strategic point to increase the level of community resilience related to prevent common diseases, including the Covid-19 pandemic that recently hit.

    Contact Name
    Asia Pulp and Paper Sinar Mas
    Geographical coverage


    01 October 2018 (start date)
    30 September 2019 (date of completion)
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