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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

Q1. How have the COVID-19 pandemic and the current food, energy and financing crises changed the priorities of your organization? 

Sustainable aviation and transportation are essential to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Through its normative work, oversight and technical assistance and cooperation, ICAO serves the people of the world by facilitating international civil aviation that is safe, secure, efficient, economically viable and environmentally responsible. While there is no stand-alone SDG on sustainable transport, the sector is mainstreamed into many of the SDGs and tremendously contributes to all the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic growth, social development and green goals.

Pre COVID-19, international civil aviation was connecting the world through more than 100,000 daily flights transporting 12 million passengers and around USD 18 billion worth of goods. These operations translated into roughly 4.5 billion passenger movements per year, supporting 65.5 million jobs and 2.7 trillion dollars in world gross domestic product (GDP). The COVID-19 pandemic imposed massive disruptions to movement of passengers and cargo in an unprecedented way, which in turn stunted economic growth. When flight restrictions were first imposed in April 2020, international air travel collapsed almost entirely. Only two per cent of normal traffic remained, disconnecting families and businesses all over the world. Ever since the sector has witnessed its biggest challenge of all times. To address the multiplier effects of the pandemic, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) had to undergo reprioritization exercises.

Underscoring the importance of global air connectivity for sustainable development, the 41st Session of the ICAO Assembly adopted an Assembly Resolution A41-24, Aviation’s contribution towards the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Resolution recognizes the importance of international solidarity and multilateral partnerships and mechanisms in support of an inclusive, sustainable and resilient economic recovery that promotes sustainable development of international civil aviation and advances the achievement of the SDGs. It further encourages ICAO Member States to enhance their efforts around collaboration and effective partnerships in support development of civil aviation in vulnerable countries including Least Developed Countries (LDCs), Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS), especially through South-South and triangular cooperation. The new Resolution as well urges ICAO Member States to ensure that frameworks and capabilities are developed and implemented as necessary and that structures for partnership and collaboration at national, regional and international levels are put in place to ensure resilience of the civil aviation sector to future global challenges in order to ensure continued contributions of aviation to attainment of the SDGs.

Q2. How has your organization supported Member States to accelerate their recovery from COVID-19 and the full implementation of the 2030 Agenda? How has your organization cooperated with other UN system organizations in these efforts to achieve coherence and synergies?

Immediately after the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, ICAO brought its 193 Member States together with other relevant UN organizations and stakeholders from the aviation and medical sector who jointly displayed international cross-sectoral collaboration leading to the Council Aviation Recovery Task Force (CART) series of reports and guidance for “reconnecting the world” which has benefitted all ICAO Member States including LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS.

In addition, in 2021 the High-level Conference on COVID-19 (HLCC) was convened to reach a global consensus on a multilateral approach, supported by political will and commitments of States that would enable the safe and efficient recovery of aviation from the COVID-19 crisis and build a foundation to strengthen resiliency and sustainability in aviation. The nine days of intensive multilateralism resulted in a Ministerial Declaration adopted by ministers, deputy ministers and heads of international organizations. The Declaration included key commitments which focused on recovery, future resilience and sustainability, while emphasizing: a) the need for a multilayer risk management strategy for international aviation; b) a harmonized and inclusive approach to facilitate safe international air travel; c) economic and financial support to the sector; and d) ensuring the interoperability and mutual recognition of, and accessibility to, digital applications. Commitments were also made to support the long-term resilience of international aviation by enhancing its crisis preparedness and response capability and strengthening mechanisms for providing assistance to States.

Within the context of the ICAO Collaborative Arrangement for the Prevention and Management of Public Health Events in Civil Aviation (CAPSCA) various initiatives were taken, including the development and a number of reviews and updates made to the Manual on COVID-19 Cross-border Risk Management. The COVID-19 Aviation Scientific Advisory Group (CASAG), a sub-group of CAPSCA, published three scientific reports on COVID-19, addressing the duration of immunity following SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccination and its effect on the onward transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and the knowns and unknowns of the Delta variant and recommendations, of which ICAO supported the dissemination. Guidance from CART, CAPSCA and the High-level Conference on COVID-19 have stressed the importance that States conduct comprehensive risk assessments and work collaboratively nationally and internationally to implement appropriate and harmonized mitigation measures (as far as possible considering State sovereignty) to safeguard the health and safety of travellers, aviation workers and the general public while enabling aviation operations to continue.

Among several ICAO initiatives aimed at strengthening the means of implementation support and enhancing global partnership is the ICAO Implementation Packages (iPacks) which were introduced with a view to assist States, in the short-term, to address COVID-19 recovery efforts and, in the medium- and long-term, to support preparedness and resilience for other public health emergencies in future and the implementation of new ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs).

ICAO has continued making steady progress in the area of environmental protection, including intense work on implementation of the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA), and the exploration of the feasibility of a Long-Term Aspirational Goal (LTAG) for international aviation, and various initiatives on innovation to support a green recovery from COVID-19. In this light, the 41st Session of the ICAO Assembly reached a historic agreement through an Assembly Resolution which resolved that ICAO and its Member States are encouraged to work together to strive to achieve a collective long-term global aspirational goal for international aviation of net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, in support of the Paris Agreement’s temperature goal, recognizing that each State’s special circumstances and respective capabilities will inform the ability of each State to contribute to the LTAG within its own national timeframe.

In the wake of the pandemic, ICAO continued to forge new collaborative relationships and strengthen existing partnerships, in particular with other United Nations entities, in support of ICAO’s Strategic Objectives and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. To that end, ICAO and the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) signed a new Memorandum of Understanding to enhance collaboration across all Strategic Objectives. Furthermore, ICAO and World Health Organization (WHO) continued their collaboration through the CAPSCA programme, which was intensified following the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic within the context of the ICAO Council Aviation Recovery Task Force (CART) framework and in relation to the UN Crisis Management Team (UN CMT), all of which resulted in a framework Memorandum of Understanding in 2022 between the two agencies. Similarly, recalling their commitment to sustainable development and the attainment of the SDGs, ICAO and the International Labour Organization (ILO) signed an agreement aimed at strengthening collaboration in areas of common interest, in particular women and aviation, decent and sustainable work in aviation, and data collection. In the same vein, ICAO entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) that aims to enhance collaboration in various technical and programmatic areas, specifically with respect to unmanned aircraft systems. ICAO and the World Food Programme strengthened collaboration in the area of humanitarian air services using conventional aircraft and unmanned aircraft and the ICAO Implementation Packages.

The Office of Internal Oversight of ICAO is in the process of conducting a High Level Review of ICAO's Contribution to SDGs, which aims at gauging the gaps and strength of ICAO’s support to its Member States in achievement of the SDGs.

Please highlight up to three high-impact initiatives, especially those that address interlinkages among the SDGs and involves interagency collaboration. Concrete initiatives might be selected to be spotlighted during relevant intergovernmental meetings.

Initiative ICAO Council Aviation Recovery Task Force (CART)
Partners ICAO Member States, international organizations in the area of aviation, medicine and other stakeholders, and the UN entities
Relevant SDGs SDGs 9, 3, 11, 1 and 17
Member States benefiting from the initiative All 193 Member States of ICAO
Description The work of the ICAO Council’s Aviation Recovery Task Force (CART) has been aimed at providing practical, aligned guidance to governments and industry operators in order to restart the international air transport sector and recover from the impacts of COVID-19 on a coordinated global basis. The ICAO CART established ten (10) key principles and twenty (20) recommendations on globally- and regionally-harmonized, mutually-accepted measures for a safe, secure and sustainable restart and recovery of the aviation sector.
Initiative Long-Term Aspirational Goal (LTAG) for international aviation
Partners ICAO Member States, international organizations in the area of aviation and other stakeholders, and the UN entities
Relevant SDGs SDGs 13, 7, 9, 11 and 17
Member States benefiting from the initiative All 193 Member States of ICAO
Description The 41st ICAO Assembly adopted a long-term global aspirational goal (LTAG) for international aviation of net-zero carbon emissions by 2050 in support of the UNFCCC Paris Agreement's temperature goal. The LTAG is a historic agreement that reinforces the leadership of ICAO on issues relating to international aviation and climate change. It is not intended to attribute specific obligations or commitments in the form of emissions reduction goals to individual States. Instead, it recognizes that each State's special circumstances and respective capabilities (e.g., the level of development, maturity of aviation markets, sustainable growth of its international aviation, just transition, and national priorities of air transport development) will inform the ability of each State to contribute to the LTAG within its own national timeframe. Each State will contribute to achieving the goal in a socially, economically and environmentally sustainable manner and in accordance with its national circumstances.
Initiative ICAO Implementation Packages (iPacks)
Partners ICAO Member States, international organizations in the area of aviation, medicine and other stakeholders, and the UN entities
Relevant SDGs SDGs 9, 11, 8, 3 and 17
Member States benefiting from the initiative All 193 Member States of ICAO, especially LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS
Description The iPacks aim at providing support to the ICAO Member States by addressing their various needs to cope with the challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in regard to the movement of goods, service personnel and passenger transport and the health and safety of passengers. This includes aspects related to emergency response, public health-related measures, facilitation and aviation security, aviation safety (e.g. management of temporary regulatory alleviations), risk management, as well as air transport and economics. ICAO and its Regional Offices are supporting and following their deployment to ensure alignment with the guidance issued at regional or national level.

Q3. Has your organization published or is it planning to publish any analytical work or guidance note or toolkits to guide and support recovery efforts from COVID-19 while advancing full implementation of SDGs at national, regional and global levels?

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, and aiming to provide States with harmonized guidance on how to best help unify and align the numerous health and safety response and recovery approaches being implemented around the world, the ICAO Council established the Council Aviation Recovery Task Force (CART). Supported by the ICAO Secretariat, representatives from States, UN Organizations, international and regional organizations, medical and aviation industry partners identified and recommended strategic priorities and policies to support Sates and aviation industry for a safe, secure and sustainable restart and recovery of the aviation sector. The Council of ICAO subsequently adopted the CART Report that aims at providing practical, aligned guidance to governments and industry operators in order to restart the international air transport sector and recover from the impacts of COVID-19 on a coordinated global basis. The Take-off: Guidance for Air Travel through the COVID-19 Public Health Crisis (TOGD) supported by the Manual on COVID-19 Cross-border Risk Management provided a framework for addressing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global aviation transportation system through risk management and the implementation of appropriate risk mitigation measures in the various areas of the aviation system.

ICAO developed draft guidance for States to establish a National Aviation Planning Framework as a means for coordinating, prioritizing and managing the development of a State’s air transport system in a consistent and sustainable manner. The Framework includes a Civil Aviation Master Plan (CAMP) which addresses the interaction of various aspects of aviation at the State level including capacity and efficiency, safety, security, air transport facilitation as well as environmental protection, and includes a discussion of linkages to other planning processes at national, regional and global levels and tools to ensure implementation consistent with the State’s overall national development goals. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, ICAO is in the process of updating the National Aviation Planning Framework guidance around resilience and preparedness plans.

ICAO as well developed an application to provide an overview of States’ COVID-19 response and recovery activities. The application indicates whether States have updated the Gap Analysis or Public Health Measures application within the previous week, and allows Member States and other stakeholders to share information on their implementation activities in support of CART recommendations by providing documents and links.

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a need for global interoperability for the issuance, exchange and verification of public health proofs required for international travel. To address this challenge, ICAO developed a global framework that enhances practicability, security and ease of verification of public health proofs through the use of field-proven visible digital seal technology and the existing e-passport trust model.

Furthermore, to help States and industry stakeholders to assess the impact of scaling up operations following the pandemic and to identify and address associated risks, the ICAO Secretariat, in collaboration with the Aviation Security Panel, has developed and published a risk assessment checklist designed specifically for that purpose. The checklist addresses areas such as personnel security, training, equipment, screening processes and the implementation of a wide range of aviation security measures, as mandated by Annex 17 — Security to the Convention on International Civil Aviation and relevant national requirements.

To facilitate the transport of COVID-19 vaccines and pharmaceuticals, the ICAO Council approved amendments to the 2021–2022 edition of the Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (Doc 9284). Guidance was also developed to support operators’ safety risk assessment processes for the transportation of such consignments.

To help States stabilize and support the beleaguered aviation industry, ICAO developed the Guidance on Economic and Financial Measures, which sets out a range of measures that can be explored by States and the aviation sector to cope with the economic fallout of the pandemic, alleviate the imminent liquidity and financial strain on the industry, and more importantly, strengthen the industry’s resilience to future crises.

Please select up to three high-impact resources to highlight, especially those that address interlinkages among the SDGs. Selected resources will be highlighted to inform relevant intergovernmental meetings.

Resource ICAO Council Aviation Recovery Task Force (CART)
Publishing entity/entities ICAO Member States, international organizations in the area of aviation, medicine and other stakeholders, and the UN entities
Relevant SDGs SDGs 9, 3, 11, 1 and 17
Target audience All 193 Member States of ICAO
Description The work of the ICAO Council’s Aviation Recovery Task Force (CART) has been aimed at providing practical, aligned guidance to governments and industry operators in order to restart the international air transport sector and recover from the impacts of COVID-19 on a coordinated global basis. The CART’s work on its recovery Report, the accompanying ‘Take-Off’ guidance for international aviation, the Manual on COVID-19 Cross-border Risk Management and the ongoing updated scientific guidance from the ICAO CAPSCA programme, has kept the health, safety, and security of the travelling public of paramount concern throughout.
Language English

How has your organization engaged with stakeholder groups to support SDG implementation and COVID-19 recovery at national, regional and global levels? Please provide main highlights, including any lessons learned. For example, what has worked particularly well as a model for effective stakeholder engagement?

The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the pivotal role of aviation in the effort to mitigate the spread of communicable disease, as well as the subsequent impact on the global public health and economy e.g. travel restrictions causing disruptions on the global trade, food and medical supply chain and tourism. This can only be achieved by adopting a multi-sectoral, multi-organizational collaborative approach on national, regional and international levels.

The ICAO Collaborative Arrangement for the Prevention and Management of Public Health Events in Civil Aviation (CAPSCA), a voluntary cross-sectorial, multi-organizational collaboration programme, managed by the ICAO with support from WHO, has been assisting Member States and the aviation industry to prepare for and manage public health emergencies since 2006, by ensuring collaboration between the aviation and public health sectors; facilitating safe and economically viable air transport while contributing to public health protection. The need for enhanced communication and collaboration to ensure a coordinated global cross-sectoral response were identified as major challenges of the international community to prepare for and manage public health emergencies in aviation. To this effect the 41st Session of the ICAO Assembly adopted Assembly Resolution A41-12: Maintaining health and sustaining safe international air transport during public health emergencies affecting air travel, in addition to existing Assembly Resolution A37-13: Prevention of spread of communicable disease through air travel and Resolution A40-14: Mitigation of the spread of disease through, inter alia, aircraft disinsection and vector control methods, and the importance of CAPSCA for implementation.

On the area of disaster risk reduction and in line with its Assembly Resolution A41-13, Strategy on Disaster Risk Reduction and Response Mechanisms in Aviation, ICAO, as chair of the Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response in Aviation (HADRA) Experts Group, has been working alongside humanitarian/crisis response partners to implement tools that will allow responders to plan relief operations more efficiently, while ensuring that their humanitarian and aviation stakeholders have reliable information critical to crisis planning and response. The objective of the HADRA is to enhance preparedness and response capabilities of States, aviation stakeholders and humanitarian stakeholders in the event of a disaster. The activities the group undertakes is intended to incentivize the integration of airport preparedness in countries’ disaster preparedness planning and other sectoral programs of relevance, ultimately contributing to SDGs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 11, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, to the SAMOA Pathway and to the Report of the United Nations Secretary-General: Our Common Agenda.

At the regional level, ICAO continues to work closely with the African Union, African States, and the African Civil Aviation Commission to support the Member States for the achievement of the ICAO aviation safety and security objectives and the ICAO Long-term Vision for International Air Transport Liberalization, in line with the Yamoussoukro Decision and the AU Single African Air Transport Market (SAATM) flagship programme towards the sustainable development of air transport in Africa. Furthermore, ICAO and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), through its Caribbean Aviation Safety and Security Oversight System (CASSOS), continued collaboration in the context of the ICAO Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) and the ACT-CORSIA (Assistance, Capacity-Building and Training for CORSIA) Buddy Partnership under which States provide State to State assistance for CORSIA implementation. ICAO has been collaborating with the Arab Civil Aviation Organization (ACAO), an agency affiliated to the League of Arab States), in the field of environmental protection and organizing several capacity-building events on environment, in particular, on State Action Plans (SAP) and CORSIA. Additionally, and the Pacific Islands Forum continued their collaboration in the context of the Port Moresby Declaration on Aviation Safety and Security and the associated Ministerial Statement endorsed by the Regional Aviation Ministers in June 2021, as well as implementation of the recommendations of the Pacific Small Island Developing States (PSIDS) Aviation Needs Analysis conducted by ICAO. The Declaration provides a range of strategic priorities and actions being implemented to respond to the critical challenges regarding aviation safety and security performance facing the Members, who have been seriously impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

If your organization has established multi-stakeholder partnership(s) in this regard, please describe them (name, partners involved, relevant SDGs, Member States benefiting from the partnership) and provide links to relevant websites for more information.

Partnership Collaborative Arrangement for the Prevention and Management of Public Health Events in Civil Aviation (CAPSCA)
Partners World Health Organization (WHO), World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), International Organization for Migration (IOM), International Maritime Organization (IMO), International Labour Organization (ILO) UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), World Food Programme (WFP), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Air Transport Association (IATA), Airports Council International (ACI), European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC), World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), African Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, International Coordinating Council of Aerospace Industries Associations (ICCAIA), International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF), International Business Aviation Council (IBAC), International Federation of Air Line Pilots’‎ Associations (IFALPA), Commission on Accreditation of Medical Transport Systems (CAMTS), Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA), International Academy of Aviation and Space Medicine (IAASM), MedAire, Latin American and Caribbean Air Transport Association (ALTA), Korean Transport Institute (KOTI), Global Humanitarian Aviation Organization (GHAO), General Global Assistance (GGA), Flight Safety Foundation (FSF), ExxonMobil, European Aeromedical Institute (EURAMI), Duty Free World Council (DFWC).
Relevant SDGs SDGs 3, 9 and 17
Member States benefiting from the initiative All 193 Member States of ICAO
Description Collaborative Arrangement for the Prevention and Management of Public Health Events in Civil Aviation (CAPSCA) is a key global health and travel coordination mechanism and is the only global programme that unites aviation with public health. Through its network of partners, CAPSCA offers an exceptional platform for national, regional and international cooperation at the public and private level, and in all areas of aviation that would be affected by a public health event. CAPSCA membership and activities have expanded this year and will be further strengthened in the future.
Partnership ICAO Assistance Capacity-building and Training for Sustainable Aviation Fuels (ACT-SAF)
Partners 62 Interested States and 16 international Organizations (see website for full list)
Relevant SDGs SDGs 7, 9, 12, 13 and 15
Member States benefiting from the initiative All 193 Member States of ICAO
Description On 1 June 2022, the ACT-SAF programme was launched as a side event officially associated to Stockholm+50 to showcase ICAO's achievements and further efforts for decarbonizing aviation. The ICAO ACT-SAF programme creates opportunities for States to develop their full potential in SAF development and deployment, in line with the ICAO's No Country Left Behind initiative, the 2050 ICAO Vision for SAF, and the three main pillars of sustainable development recognized by the United Nations. The programme aims to provide tailored support for States in various stages of SAF development and deployment, facilitate partnerships and cooperation on SAF initiatives under ICAO coordination and serve as a platform to facilitate knowledge sharing and recognition of all SAF initiatives around the globe.
Partnership Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response in Aviation (HADRA) Experts Group
Partners The Expert Group is chaired ICAO, with participation from the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA), the World Food Programme (WFP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Airports Council International (ACI), the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the Civil Air Navigation Services Organization (CANSO) and DP-DHL.
Relevant SDGs SDGs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 11
Member States benefiting from the initiative All 193 Member States of ICAO and public at large
Description Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response in Aviation (HADRA) Experts Group aims to provide the tools and guidance of relevance to aviation and humanitarian stakeholders, so that disaster response mechanisms are enhanced. This objective can only be achieved if appropriate preparedness or anticipatory activities are designed and implemented in disaster-prone States. Ultimately, the activities of the expert group should incentivize the integration of airport preparedness in countries’ disaster preparedness planning and other sectoral programmes of relevance, thus contributing to the 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development.

Q5. In the 2019 SDG Summit declaration (GA Resolution 74/4), Member States outlined ten priority areas for accelerated action in SDG implementation. Please highlight any major integrated and innovative policies or initiatives that your organization may have adopted in these ten priority areas:

5.1 leaving no one behind;

In 2014, ICAO launched the No Country Left Behind Initiative (NCLB) to strengthen efforts in support of ICAO’s Strategic Objectives and the SDGs at the State level. Subsequently, the 39th Session of the ICAO Assembly adopted Resolution A39-23, No Country Left Behind (NCLB) Initiative. The NCLB initiative aims at assisting its 193 Member States in effectively implementing ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs), policies, plans and programmes in a globally harmonized manner, as well as addressing aviation-related Significant Safety and Security Concerns to ensure that all States have access to the significant socio-economic benefits of air transport, which directly contributes to the achievement of the SDGs.

Successful implementation of the ICAO NCLB initiative, which includes advocacy for the benefits of aviation in the context of development at the country level and generating the political willingness to allocate sufficient resources to aviation development, will enhance States’ air transport systems and support the implementation of the ICAO Assembly Resolution A41-24, Aviation’s contribution towards the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Since the launch of the ICAO NCLB, impressive strides have been achieved and partnerships have formed, supporting the sustainable development of air transport, all in alignment with and align with the achievement of the SDGs.

5.2 mobilizing adequate and well-directed financing;

ICAO has a dedicated resource mobilization capacity with the primary intent of supporting States in the quest for the improvement of global civil aviation. In turn, the improvements to global civil aviation will help toward the achievement of the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs as well as the NCLB Initiative.

In response to the unprecedented financial effects of COVID-19 on global civil aviation, in 2021, ICAO drafted and began to implement the ICAO COVID-19 Resource Mobilization (RM) Strategy. The Strategy’s objectives are to achieve sustainable voluntary contributions and to realize the Organization’s mission by assisting States with the restart and recovery of their civil aviation systems, during and after the pandemic.

The Strategy has been met with signs of success given the strong interest of donors in financing iPacks, which could represent a new and complementary way to assist vulnerable States in reaching the SDGs, as well as the ICAO NCLB initiative.

Financial and in-kind contributions received from States continued to be instrumental in supporting ICAO through the deployment of gratis personnel and secondees, and organization of conferences, events, summits, meetings and workshops.

5.3 enhancing national implementation;

The ICAO Technical Cooperation Programme is the major operational tool to reinforce the Organization’s technical cooperation objectives, including enhancing the capacity of States to implement ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) and Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS). From 2019 to 2021, the Technical Cooperation Bureau (TCB) developed a portfolio of projects funded mainly by Governments or service providers, which have contributed to the enhancement of aviation safety, air navigation capacity and efficiency, security and facilitation, economic development and environmental protection worldwide. During this period, assistance was provided to over 138 States and 10 Organizations through the implementation of an average of 98 technical cooperation, technical assistance and ICAO Programme for Aviation Volunteers (IPAV) projects per year, in addition to the deployment of 32 ICAO Implementation Packages (iPacks).

Recognizing the importance of implementation support to ICAO Member States, a new “Policy on ICAO Implementation Support Provided to States” was approved by the Council in March 2022 which aims at strengthening and harmonizing the coordination and management of implementation support programmes, projects, products, services and activities, integrating these efforts into the ICAO Business Plan, and ensuring that the support provided to States across all areas of civil aviation is relevant, efficient, consistent in content and delivery regardless of the source of assistance or the associated funding mechanism. Building partnerships and pooling resources are necessary to achieve sustainable and predictable funding for implementation support and avoiding duplication of efforts. Considering that a high percentage of ICAO Member States lack the required funds to efficiently and consistently develop their civil aviation infrastructure and human resources, it is expected that the new Policy will enhance ICAO’s collaboration with internal and external stakeholders, minimize duplication, facilitate resource mobilization and optimize the allocation of resources. Furthermore, reinforcing a needs-based approach, in support of the NCLB initiative, the Policy reiterates the importance of addressing States’ requirements for development.

5.4 strengthening institutions for more integrated solutions;

ICAO has produced guidance material to support Member States in the establishment and implementation of a comprehensive National Aviation Planning Framework. A National Aviation Planning Framework is comprised of multiple policies, plans and programmes that, together, support the continued development of a sustainable national air transport system. The Framework serves to effectively prioritize and execute initiatives that improve aviation safety, security, environmental protection, capacity and efficiency. In addition, the Framework provides a means to link aviation’s contributions to the State’s economic and social development goals, including attainment of the SDGs. The Framework as well facilitates integration of aviation development plans in national development and budget plans. Funding for the sustainable development of air transport requires adequate planning and brokering at the national level.

5.5 bolstering local action;

Development of sustainable freight and passenger transport, including through integrated port terminals, well planned airports and harmonized standards and regulations for efficient border crossings, will enable economic growth. While aviation has no specific SDG, the sector is being recognized as an enabler of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 SDGs. Air transport operations affect multiple sectors of the economy, especially tourism. In the pre-COVID-19 world, approximately 1.4 billion tourists were crossing borders every year, and over half of whom arrived at their destinations by air. Pre COVID-19 the global aviation sector had a total economic impact of USD 2.7 trillion representing 3.6% of the world’s GDP, and supported a total of 65.5 million jobs globally. Air transport additionally provides the only rapid worldwide transportation network, which makes it a driver of global trade and e-commerce, allowing globalization of production, whereby small volumes of air cargo amount to big values in world trade. The growth of urban population will generate more travel demand and more so on air transport sector and associated infrastructure, which in the pre COVID-19 world was projected to double by 2030. In addition, aviation contributes to boosting social and cultural interactions in the cities through increase in connectivity and tourism.

In the context of urban development, airports are gateways to other countries and regions because they promote continuous circulation of goods and services to service supply and distribution chains. Airports encompasses the terminal, other facilities such as warehouses, distribution centres, banking facilities, hospitality facilities and other compatible industries that are located in or near airports, forming part of its ecosystem. Development policies based on transit oriented development models applied to airport development and urban development are crucial determinants in the level of economic activity and the spread of the value of goods and services associated with the use of airport facilities.

Sustainable transport also supports inclusive growth, job creation, poverty reduction, access to markets, as well as the empowerment of women, and the well-being of persons with disabilities and other vulnerable groups. However, the transport landscape in urban agglomerations is often highly inequitable, with poor and disabled people left with inadequate means to access the economic and social centres of the cities. Hence, national urban policies and framework for planning and development of inclusive and accessible urban settings should take into consideration the needs and challenges of people with disabilities or reduced mobility across all modes of modes of transport. In air transport, this means taking into account all the elements of the chain of a person’s journey, from the arrival at the airport of departure to leaving the airport of destination. ICAO has International Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) related to facilitating transport for persons with disabilities, and these generally seek to ensure that airport facilities and services are adapted to their needs, complemented by the Manual on Access to Air Transport by Persons with Disabilities (Doc 9984).

In addition, healthier cities and communities are dependant on the compatibility of airports with their environs, which can be achieved by proper planning and management of airports and land-use planning of the area surrounding the airport. ICAO develops Standards and recommended practices, contained in Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, as well as guidelines to address matters related to airports and metropolitan infrastructure development, land-use and planning, noise, environment and capacity-building. ICAO Airport Planning Manual Part 2, Land-use and Environmental Management (Doc 9184) is a principal document which provides a comprehensive analysis of international aviation environmental impacts and outlines strategies to reduce them from the design, planning and operations of airports. Aircraft noise being the primary concern of communities around the airports, the Airport Planning Manual Part 2 introduces a detailed approach to robust noise management, of which land-use planning and associated zoning policies are an integral part. ICAO’s Guidance on the Balanced Approach to Aircraft Noise Management (Doc 9829), ICAO’s Airport Air Quality Manual (Doc 9889), and ICAO’s Circular 351 – Community Engagement for Aviation Environmental Management are other guidance material to address health related issues for people and communities from the adverse effects of operation of airports. ICAO’s Eco-Airport Toolkit e-collection is another tool, which provides practical and ready-to-use information to support the development of airport infrastructure projects.

The above are a testimony to the importance of integrated urban system planning and multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder coordination when addressing issues around inclusive, healthier and safer cities and communities that are able to withstand destabilizing effects of negative social phenomena, such as corruption, drug and illicit firearms trafficking and terrorism, unregulated migration, lack of access to public goods, widespread public protests etc. A good example of partnerships to foster the Goals of the 2030 Agenda in the area of urban development is the joint study initiated by ICAO and UN-Habitat to explore the ‘Synergy between Airports and Urban Development for Sustainable Development’.

5.6 reducing disaster risk and building resilience;

Aviation often serves as the only possible means of transportation to provide health care and food supplies to many remote communities, and it is a fast and reliable way to deliver urgent humanitarian aid during emergencies caused by natural disasters, famine and war. In the aftermath of a disaster, aviation constitutes an essential lifeline for the people affected, as the efficient arrival of life-saving equipment, supplies, and humanitarian experts is critical in the first hours after an event occurs. During crisis response, lack of effective communication amongst stakeholders, along with a myriad of responder priorities leads to a degradation of coordination and communication that can severely affect the effectiveness and efficiency of the humanitarian response.

ICAO, as chair of the Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response in Aviation (HADRA) Experts Group, has been working alongside humanitarian/crisis response partners to implement tools that will allow responders to plan relief operations more efficiently, while ensuring that their humanitarian and aviation stakeholders have reliable information critical to crisis planning and response. The objective of the HADRA is to enhance preparedness and response capabilities of States, aviation stakeholders and humanitarian stakeholders in the event of a disaster. The activities the group undertakes is intended to incentivize the integration of airport preparedness in countries’ disaster preparedness planning and other sectoral programs of relevance.

This work contributes to the SDGs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 11 of the 2030 Agenda, to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, to the SAMOA Pathway and to the UN SG’s Report: Our Common Agenda, and is fully aligned with ICAO Assembly Resolution A39-24, Strategy on Disaster Risk Reduction and Response Mechanisms in Aviation and with the ICAO Crisis Response Policy adopted in 2017.

In an aviation context, climate adaptation involves adjusting, changing, or improving air traffic operations, and infrastructure to prepare for projected climate changes and to limit adverse impacts to an acceptable level. It may also include adjustments to schedules. It may also provide opportunities to take advantage of beneficial impacts. Aviation climate resilience is the ability for the aviation system operations and infrastructure to be able to withstand and recover from external perturbation resulting from the impacts of climate change. Under the umbrella of the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP), ICAO develops and disseminates guidance for States and aviation stakeholders to address the need for the global aviation sector to adapt to changing climate. ICAO Climate Adaptation Synthesis report and ICAO Climate Change: Climate Risk Assessment, Adaptation and Resilience Guidance provide support to States and aviation organisations to adapt and build resilience to the risks of climate change.

ICAO has developed comprehensive guidance material on UAS for Humanitarian Aid and Emergency Response (U-AID). This guidance material is a resource for member States to enable humanitarian aid and emergency response operations using UAS, and to enable an expedited review process for urgent operations. It is applicable for States that have already implemented UAS regulations and for States who are in the beginning stages of promulgating UAS regulations. ICAO is also part of an international effort to identify and streamline emergency preparedness at international airports. This is done in partnership with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and additional aviation and humanitarian partners.

Building upon and expanding beyond the COVID-19 crisis and recognizing the importance of building resilience in aviation, in 2022 ICAO organized an Innovation Fair under the theme of “Innovation for Enhanced Resilience in International Civil Aviation”. During the event, participants had the opportunity to explore the key role innovation plays in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and other global challenges, to build back better and how international civil aviation is an enabler of global prosperity and interconnectivity, bringing business and people together.

Furthermore, ICAO and the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) joined forces in relation to the global delivery of an aviation recovery and resilience training programme for aviation leaders, accelerating the restoration of air services through improving alignment with international best practices. The training programme targets the Directors-General of Civil Aviation (DGCAs) of ICAO’s 193 Member States, covering lessons learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, with a particular focus on aviation safety, sustainability, technology and cybersecurity.

5.7 solving challenges through international cooperation and enhancing the global partnership;

Fostering partnerships that assist States to enhance their air transport systems and effectively mobilize resources by making the ‘business case’ for air transport to be considered an enabler of sustainable development is another area of activity for ICAO. Reinforced in Resolution A41-24, ‘strengthening partnerships’ is identified in the ICAO Business Plan as a key activity to enhance the efficiency, effectiveness and impact of ICAO’s work. Aiming to provide guidance on the policies, processes and procedures related to ICAO partnership activities, ICAO developed a Partnership Framework Guidance to identify targeted partnerships to achieve the SDGs. Below is a brief overview of a few collaborative mechanisms led by ICAO in support of its Strategic Objectives and the SDGs: Safety - Safety is a core value-offering of rapid and dependable air services, the 193 countries who cooperate through ICAO are currently working toward their agreed global safety target of zero fatalities by 2030, in tandem with the strengthening of their regulatory capacities, while pursuing a range of programmes and targets relevant to current core areas of global aviation safety planning, oversight, and risk mitigation.

In this connection, ICAO leads and participates in numerous partnerships to assist States addressing safety challenges, with priority given to sharing information on assistance activities, expertise, technology and resources and coordinating targeted capacity building projects that facilitate the implementation of the SDGs. Through these partnerships, the aviation community ultimately achieves its intended objectives of enhancing aviation safety at both regional and global level. The international coordination provided by ICAO through multi-stakeholder partnerships ensures policy coherence for sustainable development. Major ICAO assistance activities with partners include the following:

Regional Aviation Safety Groups (RASGs) and Planning and Implementation Regional Groups (PIRGs) – RASGs and PIRGs serve as regional cooperative forums that determine regional priorities, and develop and maintain the regional aviation safety plans, and associated work programmes, based on the Global Aviation Safety Plan and Global Air Navigation Plan respectively, as well as other relevant ICAO provisions, integrating global, regional, sub-regional, national and industry efforts for the continued enhancement of aviation safety and efficiency worldwide.

Cooperative Development of Operational Safety and Continuing Airworthiness Programmes (COSCAPs) and Regional Safety Oversight Organizations (RSOOs) – A number of ICAO Member States have challenges in providing safety oversight and resolving their safety deficiencies due to insufficient financial, technical and/or qualified human resources. ICAO facilitates assistance through the Cooperative Development of Operational Safety and Continuing Airworthiness Programmes (COSCAPs) and supports Regional Safety Oversight Organizations (RSOOs), through which groups of States can collaborate and share resources to improve their safety oversight capabilities. COSCAPs and RSOOs play an important role by supporting the establishment and operation of a performance-based safety system by analyzing safety information and hazards to aviation at a regional level and reviewing the action plans developed within the region. There are several COSCAPs and RSOOs which are already well established and operational in regions around the world.

Aviation Safety Implementation Assistance Partnership (ASIAP) - The Aviation Safety Implementation Assistance Partnership (ASIAP) was established in February 2015. The ASIAP serves as a framework for coordinated efforts that contribute to the provision of assistance to States. The ASIAP’s objectives are information sharing, prioritizing assistance needs, collaborating on assistance activities, supporting a resource mobilization strategy, and agreeing on outcome indicators. Through this framework, ICAO and its partners coordinate the implementation of safety assistance in priority states. One of the expected outcomes of the coordination is the development of indicators and metrics.

Comprehensive Regional Implementation Plan for Aviation Safety in Africa (AFI Plan) - Adopted by the 36th ICAO Assembly (A36-1), the Comprehensive Regional Implementation Plan for Aviation Safety in Africa (AFI Plan) was developed to address the concerns expressed by the ICAO Council on the safety status of aircraft operations in the African Region. Implementation of AFI Plan is integrated into ICAO programme of activities, where African states are assisted with their aviation planning, implementation and monitoring mechanisms.

Security and Facilitation – All ICAO’s initiatives in the field of aviation security rely, both globally and regionally, on cooperation amongst States and other stakeholders. The overarching goal is to enhance global security by implementing uniform security measures around the world, a goal that cannot be achieved without an unswerving commitment by all concerned.

Cooperative Aviation Security Programme (CASP) – The Programme aims at assisting Members in ensuring compliance with international Conventions, ICAO SARPs and guidance material related to aviation security by enhancing the aviation security capabilities of the Programme’s participating Member States and Administrations in accordance with the ICAOs relevant provisions and the ICAO Global Aviation Security Plan's aspirational targets.

Comprehensive Regional Implementation Plan for Aviation Security and Facilitation in Africa (AFI SECFAL Plan) - AFI SECFAL Plan is an ICAO Programme intended to assist African States to enhance aviation security and facilitation, coordinate and align all capacity-building efforts and resolve systemic deficiencies in aviation security and facilitation in a sustainable manner.

Environmental Protection: ICAO works with various stakeholders including international and intergovernmental organizations as well as industry groups to help guide policymaking, provide support to its Member States, and coordinate actions across the environment agenda. These groups include IRENA, SE4All, ATAG, ACI, CANSO, IATA, ICCAIA, TIACA, IBAC, IFALPA. ICSA provides technical expertise and brings an NGO perspective to developing policies and strategies to reduce emissions and noise from the aviation sector. Some of the projects were ICAO has successfully engaged with the stakeholders in the area of environmental protection include the ICAO-EU project, Capacity building for CO2 mitigation from international aviation; ICAO Assistance Capacity-building and Training for CORSIA (ACT-CORSIA); ICAO Assistance Capacity-building and Training for Sustainable Aviation Fuels (ACT-SAF); and ICAO-UNDP/GEF project.

5.8 harnessing science, technology and innovation with a greater focus on digital transformation for sustainable development;

The 40th Session of the ICAO Assembly adopted Resolution A40-27, Innovation in Aviation. The Resolution recognizes that innovations carry significant potential in improving aviation safety, efficiency, security, facilitation, environmental sustainability, and economic development of air transport. They can also lead to more efficient and streamlined aviation regulatory processes. Technological advances and progresses made in aviation include, inter alia, solar airplanes and hybrid/electric technologies for aviation, sustainable aviation fuels, suborbital flights, flying taxis, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and their traffic management systems, provision of regular communication services from platforms on high-altitude balloons, new technologies for border management, and machine learning, artificial intelligence and blockchain in applications developed for aviation.

Noting the importance of innovation in aviation, various initiatives on innovation have been deployed to progress ICAO's Strategic Objectives, enhance the cooperation between ICAO and innovators. Consistently, with Resolution A40-27, such initiatives aim to:

-Assess the need, as well as the resources required, to evolve the processes of the Organization, including its working methods with the industry in order to keep pace with innovations that affect the sustainable development of civil aviation;

-Liaise with States, governmental and non-governmental organizations, the private sector, academia and the relevant United Nations system entities in order to establish an inclusive dialogue at strategic level that will encourage further collaboration and sharing of experience in relation to innovation; and

-Develop, high-level policies to address the findings of the aforementioned assessment and subsequently provide a framework that will help ensure the timely development of global policies and standards that support the continuing improvement of safety, efficiency, security, facilitation, economic and environmental performance.

ICAO as well has developed a strategy on innovation, which lays out the ICAO’s vision on innovation and means to implement the strategy and achieve its objectives. In the same vein, ICAO organized the inaugural Industry Consultative Forum (ICF), as well as the Second ICF meeting on Sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) and Lower Carbon Aviation Fuel (LCAF), which took place respectively in 2021 and 2022. The ICF meetings have been a novel yet crucial step taken by ICAO to directly engage with industry stakeholders in support of identification of the most significant and transformative challenges faced by the industry in relation to innovation.

5.9 investing in data and statistics for the SDGs;

ICAO’s aviation data and statistics programme aims at providing accurate, reliable and consistent aviation data so that States, international organizations, aviation industry, tourism industry and other stakeholders can make better projections, control costs and risks, improve business valuations, and benchmark performance.

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, ICAO continued to update and publish its economic analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on air transport in order to provide authoritative information and forecasts to Member States and the international community.

A series of interactive air transport dashboards were developed and subsequently integrated, in collaboration with the United Nations Statistical Division, into the United Nations public platform for monitoring the impact of COVID-19 on trade, travel and transport. ICAO also worked with the United Nations Global Big Data Group to develop business intelligence dashboards for data driven decision-making. The ICAO dashboards cover a wide array of analytics ranging from operations, fleet usage, passenger carried, Flight Information Region (FIR) traffic, and revenue impact on airlines, airports and ANSPs at different levels of granularity. They allow for the visualization and download of data by State, region, route group and FIR. Furthermore, ICAO provided data and analytics to the Committee for the Coordination of Statistical Activities (CCSA) of the United Nations to produce a report highlighting a wide range of statistics on how the COVID-19 crisis is changing the world (…)

The ICAO Statistics Programme was modernized as part of the Enterprise Data Management (EDM) initiative, which aims to harmonize different sources of data at the organizational level. In the context of this Programme, ICAO develops Civil Aviation Data Solutions (iCADs) and an online version of Doc 7100 (in collaboration with Airports Council International (ACI)), which are new decision support tools for capacity-building and infrastructure development. The ICAO Statistics Programme has been significantly enhanced using cloud computing and multi-node processing for the storage, processing and analysis of different big data sources.

ICAO also prepares medium-term forecasts, on an annual basis, and long-term forecasts with a twenty-years horizon, that support various planning and implementation purposes. The long-term forecasts for passenger and freight traffic, aircraft movements, and related parameters, from which customized or more detailed forecasts can be produced for various purposes, such as effectively implement ICAO’s NCLB initiative; estimate future noise and emissions trends; assess the operational effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of air navigation systems; assess licensed personnel and training requirements; and carry out infrastructure planning and capacity-building for the improved safety of operations.

5.10 strengthening the High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF).

Since the adoption of the Resolution A40-21, ICAO continued its contribution to the thematic reviews of the High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF). In 2021, ICAO also organized a side event on the margins of the HLPF to highlight the importance of a sustainable and resilient restart and recovery of civil aviation for the recovery of the global economy and the expansion of trade and tourism. The side event provided an opportunity to reflect on how aviation interconnected with and supported other industries, as well as the importance of restoring air connectivity for the recovery of many sectors of the economy. ICAO also showcased how common objectives could be achieved through the leveraging of synergies and coordination of efforts across sectors, and by identifying vulnerabilities, recognizing opportunities for developing resilience, and addressing challenges in reconnecting the world and “building back better” during the Decade of Action.

Q6. Following the adoption of the 2022 Ministerial Declaration, please highlight any major integrated and innovative policies or initiatives that your organization may have adopted related to the below, if applicable:

6.1 Member States encouraged "the United Nations system and all relevant actors to take advantage of emerging technologies and their applications, as appropriate, in order to maximize impact and effectiveness in data analysis and collection and stress the need to bridge the digital gap among and within countries" (Paragraph 86)

In light of the ever-changing market conditions and high traffic volatility during the covid-19 recovery phase, it is imperative that Member States and aviation stakeholders can access updated forecasts to meet their post-pandemic planning and implementation needs. To this end, ICAO through the Multi-disciplinary Working Group on Long-term Traffic Forecasts (MDWG-LTF) under the Aviation Data and Analysis Panel has been producing and updating long-term traffic forecasts, including post-COVID-19 forecasted scenarios. Such forecasts will enable Member States and stakeholders to better align capacity with expected demand, thus reducing the risk associated with the uncertainties due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The updated traffic forecasts are also critical to effectively deliver the results of all ICAO’s Strategic Objectives, including but not limited to: estimation of future trends of noise, emissions and particulate matter; conduct of business case, cost-benefit analysis, economic impact analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis in developing aviation infrastructure programmes and plans; and establishment of evaluation and monitoring frameworks in alignment with the Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP), the Global Air Navigation Plan (GANP), the Global Aviation Security Plan (GASeP) and adequate oversight system. In addition, given the exponential growth of e-commerce cargo, ICAO is planning to collaborate with the ITF-OECD, Universal Postal Union (UPU) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) to develop a methodology for forecasting the growth of e-commerce by mode of air transport.

Furthermore, ICAO recognizes the role of big data analytics in leveraging and unlocking the potential value of such data to improve safety and operational efficiency of aviation, allowing States and the industry to make more informed decisions and policymaking. In this light, ICAO has been increasingly exploiting the big data and expanding its activities using big data. The aforementioned big data sets have been processed and analyzed in close collaboration with other UN agencies and international organizations. ICAO will continue to provide aviation-related big data solutions, algorithm based technologies including artificial intelligence and machine learning to provide data visualizations, identify trends, make predictions, and conduct related big data analysis to assist States in their recovery, planning and implementation efforts.

It is to be recalled that ICAO is the custodian agency of the SDG indicator 9.1.2 on passengers and freight volumes, by mode of transport (air, maritime, inland waterways, road and rail). The integration of official statistics with big data sources of different international organizations is reflected in the annual global SDG report. Using the online UN SDG platform, States can monitor progress towards achieving SDG goal 9.1.2 and benchmark their air transport infrastructure to facilitate related investments.

In the same vein, recognizing that there has been no internationally-agreed standard on measuring the economic contribution of aviation to national economy, at the request of its 39th Assembly, ICAO embarked on an exercise to develop a methodological framework for the economic measurement of aviation activity, including aviation’s contribution to GDP, the number of jobs created by aviation, aviation consumption, and the impact of aviation on balance of payments. In this connection, work was undertaken by the Expert Advisory Group (EAG) established under the ICAO Aviation Data and Analysis Panel (ADAP) to develop an Aviation Satellite Account (ASA) methodological framework. The EAG was comprised of aviation data experts and national accounts specialists of Member States, the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) and other international organizations. The ASA methodological framework aims to enable States to make data-driven policy-making and evaluation for aviation development planning that is linked with national and/or regional development frameworks and strategies.

Another noteworthy initiative led by ICAO in relation to aviation’s digital ecosystem is the International Aviation Trust Framework (IATF). The concept of IATF is based on the understanding that the entire civil aviation system runs on trust, a responsibility that is at the core of everything ICAO does; facilitating the safe and reliable flow of information between all these parties, an effort that the internet has revolutionized through its management of information on a global scale. Some of the new and emerging entrants to the aviation system such as drones, air taxis, and commercial space operations were “born digital” and rely on the internet for their basic operations. As aviation increases its use of the internet’s power and reach, some of its limitations make aviation-centric information exchange extremely challenging. This, combined with the rapid, tech-focused pace of the new entrants clashing with legacy aviation’s slow and methodical approach, has encouraged ICAO to work with experts from around the world with different areas of expertise to develop an information management framework to ensure that information flowing across the internet is done safely and securely. Further work on operationalizing the International Aviation Trust Framework is being carried out by ICAO and its partners to ensure its full potentials for States and people of the world are capitalized on.

6.2 Member States specifically called upon the UN system "to work with the newly established United Nations Food Systems Coordination Hub, hosted by FAO, to support Governments to develop and strengthen SDG-based national pathways for sustainable food systems transformation" (Paragraph 128)


Q7. The 2023 SDG Summit is expected to provide political leadership, guidance and recommendations for sustainable development and follow-up and review progress in the implementation of sustainable development commitments and the achievement of the 2030 Agenda, including through national and regional consultations, which will mark the beginning of a new phase of accelerated progress towards the SDGs. In the lead up to the 2023 SDG Summit, please provide your organization’s recommendations on how to overcome challenges to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda and the achievement of the SDGs, taking into account the thematic reviews and voluntary national reviews conducted to date. 

  • One of the major obstacles in the achievement of the SDGs is the voluntary nature of the goals. It is, therefore, crucial to ensure that national development plans and financing and budget frameworks correspond to the magnitude of the change needed to deliver by 2030. This validates for countries to proactively mainstream SDGs into national planning instruments, policies, strategies and financial frameworks, with due consideration for key sectors that have suffered more amid COVID-19.
  • Incorporating the SDGs into national planning frameworks and budgets can improve programming and financing. Robust planning mechanisms and making sure that national planning frameworks and policies are in sync with sustainable development plans can improve availability of funding and can also be used by donors and investors to coordinate their respective programs across sectors and avoid wasteful overlap and competition. In addition, diversification of funding and financing sources including through private sector engagement and the effective use of domestic resources and international development funding and multilateral development banks are other considerations for ensuring availability of adequate resources.
  • We live in an interconnected world with flows of goods, capital, people and information, in a way that overlaps, interconnects and links the development of nations and regions across North and South, global and local, today and tomorrow. Transport is the key to connectivity and integrating markets and economies. While it has no dedicated SDGs, sustainable transport, through its all modes, is a driver of social and economic growth globally, which demonstrates the necessity of strengthening connectivity and sustainable mobility as we continue to advance the SDGs in the post-COVID-19 era, and the need to coordinate our efforts across sectors to achieve our common goal of re-establishing and elevating sustainable social and economic levels.
  • The Summit of the Future planned for 2024 will be a key momentum in galvanizing global commitment in achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
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Year of submission: 2022