International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
1. What decisions or new strategies has the governing body of your organization taken to guide the implementation of the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs? Please provide a brief summary below, including the overarching vision of your governing body for the Decade of Action on the SDGs.
The core principles permitting international transport by air were established by the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention), signed on 7 December 1944. The Preamble to the Chicago Convention promotes cooperation and recognizes that “the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and people of the world”.
ICAO has established five Strategic Objectives (SOs) which form the foundation for all work undertaken by the Organization to ensure that air traffic growth is managed safely, securely and efficiently, with due respect for aviation sector’s environmental commitments, while fully capturing and realizing potential economic benefits to be generated from the increasing traffic:
Safety: Enhance global civil aviation safety. This Strategic Objective is focused primarily on the State’s regulatory oversight capabilities;
Air Navigation Capacity and Efficiency: Increase the capacity and improve the efficiency of the global civil aviation system. This Strategic Objective is focused primarily on upgrading the air navigation and aerodrome infrastructure and developing new procedures to optimize aviation system performance;
Security and Facilitation: Enhance global civil aviation security and facilitation. This Strategic Objective reflects the need for ICAO’s leadership in aviation security, facilitation and related border security matters;
Economic Development of Air Transport: Foster the development of a sound and economically-viable civil aviation system; and
Environmental Protection: Minimize the adverse environmental effects of civil aviation activities.
In alignment with the Organization’s mandate in standard-setting, oversight, capacity building and assistance in relation to international civil aviation, ICAO Assembly Resolution A40-21, Aviation Contribution towards the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, is the overarching framework of the Organization on triennial implementation guidance towards the achievement of the UN 2030 Agenda. This resolution, which was first adopted unanimously in 2016, at the 39th Session of the Assembly of ICAO, illustrates the close interlinkages between aviation and the SDGs, and establishes close linkage between the UN SDGs with ICAO’s five Strategic Objectives of safety, air navigation capacity and efficiency, security and facilitation, economic development of air transport and environmental protection. In 2019, the 40th session of ICAO’s Assembly reaffirmed ICAO’s commitments towards the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals through Resolution A40-21. In its revision of the Resolution, the 40th Session of the Assembly of ICAO encouraged Member States to report on aviation, as an enabler of sustainable development, within their National Voluntary Review delivered at the UN High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, and to include clear references the SDGs in their national aviation plans, with the objective of showcasing the contribution of aviation to the UN SDGs and national economies.
Under the umbrella of the ICAO Assembly Resolution A40-21 and in line with its Strategic Objectives as well as No Country Left Behind (NCLB) initiative, ICAO diligently advocates the benefits of aviation in support of the 2030 Agenda, assists States with implementation efforts through development of dedicated tools and services, facilitates capacity building initiatives, supports strengthening and fostering existing and new collaborations and partnerships, and conducts resource mobilization activities. The special needs and characteristics of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have been given particular attention in the Resolution.
Activities undertaken by ICAO assist its Member States in enhancing their air transport systems and therefore fostering contributions of aviation towards sustainable development as envisioned through the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. These activities complement ICAO’s core mission and role in establishment and maintenance of international Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs), as well as Procedures for Air Navigation (PANS) as well as globally harmonized policies and guidance, which are fundamental tenets of the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Today, ICAO manages over 12,000 SARPs across the 19 Annexes and 5 PANS to the Convention, many of which are constantly evolving in concert with latest developments and innovations. SARPs and PANS provide ICAO Member States and other stakeholders the fundamental basis for harmonized global aviation safety and efficiency in the air and on the ground, the worldwide standardization of functional and performance requirements of air navigation facilities and services, and the orderly development of air transport.
To accelerate the attainment of SDGs in the Decade of Action, ICAO aims to develop its 2020-2030 Framework to Strengthen ICAO’s Support of Sustainable Development Goals. This framework, which is intended to be “rolling in nature” and subject to annual review, will outline direction and future objectives for the efforts of the Organization to further integrate the SDGs into its work programmes and plans, and enhance its support of the implementation of the 2030 Agenda in the Decade of Action.
2. At the secretariat level, what steps has your organization taken (or will it take) in the follow-up to the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs? Please specify actions, including but not limited to the following areas:
2.1 SDG-specific strategies, plans or work programmes;
Sustainable transport and aviation are essential to achieving the SDGs and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Through its normative work, oversight and technical assistance and cooperation, ICAO serves the people of the world in facilitating international civil air transport that is safe, secure, efficient, economically viable and environmentally responsible. In 2017, the Organization undertook a mapping exercise to illustrate how its work around the Organization’s five Strategic Objectives supports 15 out of the 17 the Sustainable Development Goals. This analytical mapping, which was updated in 2019, provides a powerful testimony on just how deeply the ICAO Strategic Objectives and the SDGs are intertwined. In its outreach and advocacy efforts, ICAO continues to make reference to these synergies and linkages with the SDGs.
ICAO is also an official observer on the Inter-agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goal Indicators and is the custodian agency of global indicator 9.1.2, Passenger and Freight Volumes, by Mode of Transport within the 2030 Agenda framework. In this capacity, ICAO provides data and analysis to the annual Sustainable Development Goals Report, the indicator documentation and the online UN platform for monitoring the progress towards the SDGs. This, in turn, assists ICAO Member States to monitor and benchmark air transport infrastructure and to facilitate financing and investments. These actions drive the sustainable growth of air transport and benefit multimodal transport connectivity.
In 2017, ICAO collaborated with other partners of the aviation Industry, to develop the Aviation Benefits Report, which illustrates how aviation is improving the lives and livelihoods of billions of people around the world and therefore advancing socio-economic progress in support of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Report provides a comprehensive view of the importance of aviation in supporting the global economy and generating social benefits through the prism of sustainable air transport solutions. The second edition of this Report was launched in 2019 and provides a helpful and consolidated view of aviation’s current socio-economic impacts alongside challenges and objectives. It serves as a tool for ICAO advocacy efforts to foster engagement of high-level authorities, including those beyond the transport sector, towards air transport systems enhancement and prioritization of the sector in national and regional development framework.
2.2 Aligning the structure of the organization with the SDGs and the transformative features of the 2030 Agenda, including any challenges and lessons learned in doing so;
Establishment of the Strategic Planning, Coordination and Partnerships Office (SPCP) in 2017 was in response to the need of consolidation of internal efforts, forging strategic partnerships, and strengthening advocacy efforts in support of the 2030 Agenda. Under the overall direction of the Office of the Secretary General, SPCP coordinates high-level and cross-cutting strategies and priorities among the different Bureaus and Offices, including the Regional Offices, of the Organization. SPCP also has it made its objective to mainstream even better the SDGs during this Decade of Action throughout ICAO’s work.
In particular, the SPCP is responsible for the development, coordination and maintenance of the ICAO Business Plan, the Corporate Management and Reporting Tool (CMRT), and the Enterprise Risk Management (ERM), which form the basis for resource allocation and assist the management to monitor its accountability and performance with respect to the implementation of initiatives. In addition, SPCP has also the responsibility to facilitate the development of partnerships as well as to leverage such strategic partnerships in air transport systems’ enhancements for Member States and the mobilization of resources needed to implement necessary improvements. ICAO Partnership Platform and Resource Mobilization Platform are tools that have been developed to enhance efficiencies in coordination and management of ICAO partnerships as well as resource mobilization efforts.
2.3 Readjusting or updating results-based budgeting and management, including performance indicators;
The ICAO Business Plan 2020-2022 lays out priorities and a strategic direction for the Organization taking into consideration all of the work mandated to be undertaken by ICAO, regardless of source of funding. The ICAO Business Plan follows a Results Based Management approach, which integrates strategy, people, resources, processes and measurements to improve decision-making, transparency, and accountability. It responds to the needs and expectations of Member States, and includes a corresponding Regular Programme results-based Budget for the 2020-2021-2022 triennium. In 2019, ICAO Evaluation and Internal Audit Office (EAO) conducted an evaluation of results-based management (RBM) in the ICAO. The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the application of RBM in the organization, identify and learn lessons in implementing different aspects of RBM thus far, including results-based planning, budgeting, monitoring and reporting. The outcomes of this evaluation are now being taken forward. ICAO has carefully mapped the linkages between the SDGs and the 2017-2019 Business Plan five Strategic Objectives. The mapping revealed that ICAO's Strategic Objectives are interwoven with 15 of the 17 SDGs and the organization is fully committed to work in close cooperation with States, the UN and stakeholders to support the achievement of the SDGs. For three of the five Strategic Objectives (Safety, Air navigation Capacity and Efficiency, Security and Facilitation) ICAO adopted Global Plans to address its leading role in implementing activities on a result-based basis, with indicators linking to specific SDGs. The Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP), Global Air Navigation Plan (GANP) and Global Aviation Security Plan (GASeP) include detailed guidance for States on how to comply with ICAO's SARPs. This in turn supports a sustainable aviation sector at both regional and national levels.
2.4 Action to enhance support to the principle of "leaving no one behind" and to integrated policy approaches;
In 2014, ICAO launched the No Country Left Behind Initiative (NCLB) to strengthen efforts in support of ICAO’s Strategic Objectives and the SDGs at the State level. Subsequently, the 39th Session of the ICAO Assembly adopted Resolution A39-23, No Country Left Behind (NCLB) Initiative. The NCLB initiative aims at assisting its 193 Member States in effectively implementing ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs), policies, plans and programmes in a globally harmonized manner, as well as addressing Significant Safety and Security Concerns to ensure that all States have access to the significant socio-economic benefits of air transport, which directly contributes to the achievement of the SDGs.
Successful implementation of the ICAO NCLB initiative, which includes advocacy for the benefits of aviation in the context of development at the country level and generating the political willingness to allocate sufficient resources to aviation development, will enhance States’ air transport systems and support the implementation of the ICAO Assembly Resolution A40-21, Aviation’s contribution towards the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Since the launch of the ICAO NCLB, impressive strides have been achieved and partnerships have formed, supporting the sustainable development of air transport, all in alignment with and align with the achievement of the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
The ICAO NCLB initiative is for all States, with a focus on States with prioritized needs under all ICAO Strategic Objectives and serves to improve implementation support delivery to States. In 2019, upon a request made by the 39th Session of the ICAO Assembly and as part of the NCLB initiative, ICAO, in close partnership with the Pacific Small Island Developing States and regional stakeholders, undertook the Pacific Small Island Developing States (PSIDS) Needs Analysis Study. This Study outlines a comprehensive and detailed assessment of the situation and capacities of PSIDS in the area of international civil aviation as well as a comparative analysis of different options to address the identified challenges and support States in their regulatory and oversight functions. Implementation of the lessons learned and recommendations stemming from the PSIDS Study is in line with the objectives of the ICAO NCLB initiative, and would contribute to the achievements of SDGs, the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway as well as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
The NCLB objectives are supported and implemented as part of ICAO’s day-to-day operations, ranging from advocacy, capacity- building and assistance activities in international aviation, and developing dedicated tools and services to collaborative efforts and partnerships to enhance the implementation of ICAO SARPs. Below sets forth more detail on the activities undertaken by ICAO is support of NCLB:
Advocating the benefits of aviation for States at high levels of government – Under the NCLB Initiative ICAO fosters political will, necessary to support aviation commitments and improvements, through organizing or participating in key international events and meetings. These include, inter alia, the 26th African Union Summit (2016); the 2016 Global Sustainable Transport Conference; the 2017-2019 World Economic Forum in Davos; the 2017-2019 International Transport Forum; consecutive World Civil Aviation Chief Executives Forums and Aviation Leaders’ Summits, and last but not least successful organization of five consecutive ICAO World Aviation Forum (IWAF) from 2015 to 2019.
Recognizing progress by States - ICAO has instituted a mandatory audit/continuous monitoring programme in both areas of aviation safety and security to monitor States level of meeting its oversight obligations. These audit activities lead to not only identify significant safety/security concerns at State level but also recognize States that make significant progress in resolving their safety oversight deficiencies and improving the Effective Implementation (EI) of SARPs. Such significant progress is recognized through the Council President Certificates that are issued by the Council of ICAO to States from every ICAO region on an annual basis.
Facilitating and implementing capacity-building initiatives - One of the priorities of the NCLB is to support to States for implementation and development. To this aim, ICAO undertakes various initiatives to streamline technical assistance and technical cooperation activities, as well as capacity-building and training activities, to ensure that States are effectively and efficiently supported in their implementation of SARPs and programmes. As part of its activities under the NCLB Initiative, ICAO develops guidance material and tools, implements projects, recruits and deploys experts, and delivers training courses and workshops to assist States, industry and other stakeholder. As part of its activities under the Strategic Objective Environmental Protection, ICAO has produced a series of guidance documents aimed at facilitating the identification and implementation of low emissions aviation measures, in synergy with existing States’ policy priorities. In addition, ICAO established a comprehensive capacity building strategy, which helped the development of 119 Member States Action Plans to reduce aviation CO2 emissions and implementation of the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA).This gave rise to an unprecedented Assistance, Capacity-building and Training programme for CORSIA (ACT-CORSIA), including CORSIA buddy partnerships amongst ICAO Member States.
Establishing and enhancing partnerships - In line with the direction of the Assembly, expanding partnerships to support programme activities is identified in the ICAO Business Plan as a Key Activity to enhance the efficiency, effectiveness and impact of ICAO’s work. ICAO has established a dedicated resource mobilization capacity with the primary intent of supporting States in the quest for the improvement of global civil aviation and will continue its support of States through its resource mobilization efforts and and enhanced partnership and cooperation with UN organizations, the donor community and other stakeholders.
Future Objectives - ICAO, in line with its Business Plan 2020-2022, will be intensifying its technical assistance and technical cooperation activities to further implement the NCLB initiative; enhancing the Next Generation of Aviation Professionals (NGAP) Programme; the inclusion of aviation in national and regional development plans; and expanding partnerships to support the programme activities.
2.5 Action to address the interlinkages across SDG goals and targets;
ICAO’s mapping of its Strategic Objectives with SDGs illustrates that its work around the Organization’s five Strategic Objectives supports 15 out of the 17 the Sustainable Development Goals. This analytical mapping is available on the ICAO public website at https://www.icao.int/about-icao/aviation-development/pages/sdg.aspx. In its outreach and advocacy efforts, ICAO continues to reference to these synergies and linkages with the SDGs.
3. What normative, analytical, technical assistance or capacity building activities is your organization providing to support the implementation of the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs? Please provide a brief account of the activities you have organized or intend to undertake, including but not limited to the following areas:
3.1 Enhancing national implementation including by supporting the mainstreaming of the SDGs in development plans and policies or through national sustainable development plans/strategies;
Consistent with Article 44 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation, an objective of ICAO is to foster the planning and development of the international air transport system. In support of this objective, ICAO developed guidance material on Airport Planning (Doc 9184, Part 1), Air Traffic Services Planning (Doc 9426) and Airport Emergency Planning (Doc 9137).
The 13th Air Navigation Conference recommended States to create cohesive linkages between the different global aviation plans and have the SDGs clearly referenced within each of them. In support of this objective, in 2019, ICAO embarked on developing comprehensive guidance material to develop National Aviation Planning Frameworks. The intent is to provide those responsible for sustainable development within a Civil Aviation Authority and other governmental entities with the context required to ensure that all relevant aspects of aviation are included in the strategic planning processes. It provides a means for coordinating, prioritizing and managing the development of a State’s air transport system in a consistent and sustainable manner. The National Aviation Planning Framework urges Member States to enhance their air transport systems by effectively implementing SARPs and policies while at the same time including and elevating the priority of the aviation sector into their national development plans supported by robust air transport sector strategic plans and civil aviation master plans, thereby leading to the attainment of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs).
The Framework includes an example of a Civil Aviation Master Plan (CAMP), which addresses the interaction of various aspects of aviation at the State level including capacity and efficiency, safety, security, air transport facilitation as well as environmental protection. These aspects are covered at a high level in the CAMP, providing a point of reference for underlying plans associated with specific areas of aviation activity. The guidance also includes recommendations regarding the State’s CAMP structure as well as the tools to ensure the implementation is consistent with the State’s overall development goals. This Guidance Framework will be launched in early 2020 and inform a donor funded National Aviation Master Planning Course that will be developed in the course of 2020, benefiting aviation stakeholders across all the regions.
In addition, ICAO participates, when applicable and in alignment with its Strategic Objectives, in appropriate mechanisms put in place to support the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, such as the United Nations Security Council, the High- level Political Forum, and the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III) and the First Global Sustainable Transport Conference. Through these platforms, ICAO promotes that aviation be recognized and prioritized as such by Member States in their development plans.
3.2 Mainstreaming the SDGs in sectoral strategies, including specific SDG/target strategies;
Environmental Protection - Through the leadership of ICAO, international civil aviation has continuously worked to minimize its adverse effect on the environment and on human health. ICAO’s work on the Environmental Strategic Objective contributes to 14 out of the 17 SDGs, including SDG7 on renewable energy, SDG9 on resilience and SDG13 on climate change. To achieve the global aspirational goals and to promote sustainable growth of international aviation, ICAO is pursuing a basket of measures including aircraft technology improvements, operational improvements, sustainable aviation fuels, and the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). CORSIA is the first global market-based measure for any sector and represents a cooperative approach that moves away from a “patchwork” of national or regional regulatory initiatives through the implementation of a global scheme that has been developed through global consensus among governments, industry, and international organizations. It offers a harmonized way to reduce emissions from international aviation ensuring that there is no market distortion, while respecting the special circumstances and respective capabilities of ICAO Member States. The work on CORSIA has also ensured that an aircraft operator’s offsetting requirements under CORSIA can be reduced through the use of CORSIA Eligible Fuels (CEF). ICAO has coordinated with fuel producers, sustainability certification schemes, airlines, States, and additional stakeholders to ensure that the process for using CEF in CORSIA is feasible, while ensuring the environmental integrity of the scheme, and as such the CEF sustainability criteria represents the world’s first global sustainability certification framework for any industry sector. ICAO is considering a process to explore over the next triennium a long-term global aspirational goal for international aviation.
Regarding the ICAO State Action Plan initiative, since the beginning of ICAO's journey to progress in terms of policy development and standards setting to limit and reduce the impact of aviation on the global climate, ICAO Member States demonstrated that they were interested in taking action and advancing initiatives on environmental protection. However, not all of them had the human, technical and financial resources to do so. To overcome this challenge, ICAO launched the State Action Plan initiative in 2010 as a means to provide States with the capacity and tools to take action. In order to support its 193 Member States with the development of their State Action Plans, ICAO has developed a series of guidance documents and quantification tools. To date, 119 States, representing 97.39% of global RTK (revenue per tonne per kilometer) have voluntarily submitted their State Action Plan to ICAO. Given its strategic and comprehensive nature, this initiative enables States to streamline their policies in the area of climate change (SDG 13), renewable energy (SDG 7) and it is expected that in the future, climate change adaptation (SDG 9) activities could be reflected. Ultimately, the States Action Plan initiative has triggered a number of partnerships within States, thus contributing to SDG 17.
Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP) - In line with ICAO’s fundamental Strategic Objective - Aviation Safety - which links with 11 out of 17 SDGs, the overarching Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP) presents the strategy that supports the prioritization and continuous improvement of aviation safety. The GASP, along with the Global Air Navigation Plan (GANP, Doc 9750) outlines the key activities and global targets, while numerous programmes and coordinating bodies help drive collaborative safety improvements in every world region. The purpose of the GASP is to continually reduce fatalities, and the risk of fatalities, by thorough coordination and providing guidance to the development and implementation of a harmonized aviation safety strategy, regional aviation safety plans and national aviation safety plans. The GASP promotes the uniform and consistent implementation of ICAO safety related ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) contained in 16 out of the 19 Annexes to the Chicago Convention. The GASP also assists States in the development of ICAO Plans of Action and technical assistance projects. These actions aim at enhancing aviation safety contribute to the relevant SDGs at both State and regional levels as well as the role of industry partners.
The GASP is complemented by the National Aviation Safety Plan (NASP), Regional Aviation Safety Plan (RASP), master planning documents containing the strategic direction at national and regional levels for the management of aviation safety for a set time period, and State Safety Programme (SSP) which is an integrated set of regulations and activities aimed at improving safety. These activities include, for example, the establishment of requirements for the qualification of technical personnel, technical guidance and tools, a process to identify hazards from collected safety data, the assessment of safety risks, and mechanisms for the resolution of safety issues.
ICAO Global Air Navigation Plan (GANP) – To address the contribution of modernized air navigation systems to the sustainable aviation development at global level, ICAO seeks to ensure the delivery of efficient and comprehensive air navigation services through globally planned initiatives as outlined in the Global Air Navigation Plan (GANP). The Global Air Navigation Plan (Doc 9750) is the ICAO’s highest air navigation strategic document and the plan to drive the evolution of the global air navigation system, in line with the Global Air Traffic Management Operational Concept (GATMOC, Doc 9854) and the Manual on Air Traffic Management System Requirements (Doc 9882). The GANP sets up a series of implementing objectives in support of States in developing their national plans, including: to present all States with a cost-effective and comprehensive planning tool supporting a harmonized global Air Navigation system; to identify all potential performance improvements available today, details the next generation of ground and avionics technologies that will be deployed worldwide; and to provide the investment certainty needed for States and Industry to make strategic decisions for their individual planning purposes. It also supports planning for local and regional implementation. Air Navigation capacity and efficiency have close linkages with 11 out of 17 SDGs.
ICAO Global Aviation Security Plan (GASeP) - In line with ICAO’s fundamental Strategic Objective - Aviation Security and Facilitation – ICAO’s Global Aviation Security Plan (GASeP) addresses the needs of States and industry in guiding all aviation security enhancement efforts through a set of internationally agreed priority actions, tasks and aspirational targets for 2020, 2023, and 2030. The GASeP provides the foundation for States, industry, stakeholders and ICAO to work together with the shared and common goal of achieving five key priority outcomes of enhancing risk awareness and response; developing a security culture and human capability; improving technological resources and innovation; improving oversight and quality assurance; and, increasing cooperation and support. The ICAO activities and programmes around the Strategic Objective of Aviation Security and Facilitation contribute to 9 out of 17 SDGs and relevant supporting targets.
Air transport facilitation - ICAO through its Facilitation Programme provides Member States with means necessary for maximizing the efficiency of their border clearance formalities while also achieving and maintaining high-quality security and effective law enforcement, through various activities and programmes, mainly the ICAO Traveller Identification Programme (TRIP) and the ICAO Public Key Directory (PKD). In addition, ICAO develops measures, guidance and policies to implement Annex 9 — Facilitation, including the Model National Air Transport Facilitation Programme and Manual on Access to Air Transport by Persons with Disabilities that contributes to SDG 11 by facilitating access to air transport systems to all, including those people in vulnerable situations, such as persons with disabilities and unaccompanied minors. The implementation of National Air Transport Facilitation Programmes by States promotes compliance with Annex 9 and fosters safe and sustainable transport systems for all. These actions are also consistent with the sustainable aviation development linkages contained in the New Urban Agenda that contributes to this SDG by strengthening national and regional development planning.
Supporting air transport regulatory framework - ICAO has adopted the Long-term Vision for International Air Transport Liberalization, according to which its Member States resolve to actively pursue the continuous liberalization of international air transport to the benefit of all stakeholders and the economy at large, while mindful of the need to ensure respect for the highest levels of safety and security and the principle of fair and equal opportunity for all States and their stakeholders. Various activities undertaken under this Long-term Vision directly support various SDGs and targets under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The organization provides tools to enhance the transparency of the air transport regulatory framework and encourage its development, including ICAO aeronautical charges, the ICAO on-line Compendium of Competition Policies and Practices, and a database on World’s Air Services Agreements (WASA). ICAO also facilitates States’ air services negotiations through the annual ICAO Air Services Negotiation Event (ICAN) and provides principles on consumer protection and policies on taxation. ICAO develops guidance material on air cargo services, conducts studies on aircraft leasing and on business and general aviation services. These activities directly support the target of achieving higher levels of economic productivity on the long term through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation. These initiatives and activities directly contribute to achievement of SDGs 8, 9, 10 and 17.
ICAO Next Generation of Aviation Professionals Programme (NGAP) - In response to the pressing demand from a multitude of stakeholders, ICAO established the Next Generation of Aviation Professionals Programme (NGAP) that aims at ensuring that enough qualified and competent aviation professionals are available to operate, manage and maintain the future international air transport system, supporting SDGs 1,2, 4 and 8.
ICAO Gender Equality Programme - ICAO’s Gender Equality Programme aims at promoting participation and enhanced representation of women at all professional posts and higher levels of employment in the global aviation sector. The Programme also urges States, regional and international aviation organizations and the international aviation industry to demonstrate strong, determined leadership and commitment to advance women’s rights and to take the necessary measures to strengthen gender equality. In particular, the first ever Global Aviation Gender Summit was organized in August 2018 by ICAO and hosted by the South African Government, in close collaboration with UN Women and UNESCO. It brought gender equality at to the forefront, as a solution to for future capacity issues in the sector. These efforts contribute to SDG 5 by promoting equal leadership opportunities for women and encouraging their full participation in aviation.
3.3 Supporting the strengthening of national institutions for more integrated solutions;
In addition to its mandate for standard-setting and oversight, ICAO is strengthening civil aviation institutions through Technical Cooperation and Technical Assistance projects, with an objective to enable States to better face the continuously changing aviation environment. The Bureau advises and assists States in identifying and formulating country and inter-country programmes and project requests associated with the overall planning, preparation, execution and management of civil aviation-assisted projects financed by the State, and/or by third parties including the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Trust Fund Agreements, international financial institutions, International Financial Facility for Aviation Safety (IFFAS), the private sector and other funding sources. The Bureau establishes and maintains a roster of qualified contractors and experts, deployed to meet project requirements.
The three main components of projects implemented by ICAO’s Technical Cooperation Bureau are: a) technology transfer through the recruitment and deployment of aviation experts at the field level; b) training through ICAO Fellowships awarded by donor states and training institutions; c) infrastructure development through the procurement of equipment, services, on-the-job training and related civil works for projects.
ICAO also undertakes training efforts to build capacity among civil aviation authorities and other aviation stakeholders.Through its Global Aviation Training programme, ICAO aims to lead human resources development strategies established by Member States and the aviation community to ensure they have access to a sufficient number of qualified and competent personnel to operate, manage and maintain current and future air transport systems. To assist its Member States in their capacity‐building and human resources development efforts, ICAO developed the Practical Guide to Aviation Training and Capacity‐Building Roadmap for States. The Organization continues supporting its Member States through identification of the training requirements of the Member States, and in subsequent training implementation plans. This will also assist in preparing to respond to the changing skill demands of the industry through skilling, up-skilling and res-killing of the workforce, hence contributing to the achievement of SDGs 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11.
3.4 Data and statistical capacity building;
ICAO’s aviation data/statistics programme aims at providing accurate, reliable and consistent aviation data so that States, international organizations, aviation industry, tourism industry and other stakeholders can make better projections, control costs and risks, improve business valuations, and benchmark performance. In 2018, the Organization finalized a re-engineering process of the ICAO Statistics Programme by utilizing new technologies and the Enterprise Data Management (EDM) architecture for the Integrated Statistical Database (ISDB). With the view to adapt its strategy to emerging trends, ICAO has been gradually expanding activities related to big data, namely: a) Market Intelligence Data Transfer (MIDT); b) Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B); and c) Commodity and Trade (COMTRADE) and e-commerce transactional data (E-com).These three data sets represent an all- encompassing coverage of traffic and operational data at a very high level of granularity and detail.
ICAO also prepares medium-term forecasts, on an annual basis, and long-term forecasts with a twenty-years horizon, that support various planning and implementation purposes. The long-term forecasts for passenger and freight traffic, aircraft movements, and related parameters, from which customized or more detailed forecasts can be produced for various purposes, such as air navigation systems planning and environmental analysis. Furthermore, work has been carried out in collaboration with the UN, States and international organizations to develop a methodological framework “Aviation Satellite Account” (ASA) for the measurement of the direct economic contribution of aviation to national economy, in line with the internationally-agreed standard of the System of National Accounts, 2008 (2008 SNA). ICAO will play a central role with regard to the international harmonization and comparability of economic data related to aviation activities.
To better support these objectives, the Organization manages ICAO Data Plus, a new tool that presents in a dynamic and graphical environment large amounts of air transport statistic data collected from its 193 Member States, and ICAO eTools which provide a user- friendly way to access, analyze and visualize aviation data in various specialized areas. Both ICAO Data Plus and ICAO eTools enable users to quickly identify patterns, trends, differences and similarities between data selections and make competitive analyses and benchmarking more accessible.
In addition, ICAO conducts workshops and seminars to facilitate States to develop robust statistical systems and data for monitoring progress towards the UN SDG Goal 9.1.2 of which ICAO is the custodial agency. This global indicator helps States to address infrastructure gaps by appropriate policy and financing interventions.
3.5 Harnessing science, technology and innovation for the SDGs;
During the past few years, aviation has witnessed a significant increase in the pace of development and application of new technologies and concepts of operation within the sector. These innovations carry significant potential in improving aviation safety, security, sustainability, accessibility and affordability across the globe. They can also lead to more efficient and streamlined aviation regulatory processes. Progress made include, inter alia, solar aeroplane and hybrid/electric technologies for aviation, sustainable aviation fuels, suborbital flight carrying a “test participant”, flying taxis, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and their traffic management systems, provision of regular communication services from platforms on high-altitude balloons, new technologies for border management and machine learning, artificial intelligence and blockchain in applications developed for aviation.
ICAO has offered a global forum for innovation in the aviation industry through the convening of various events including the ICAO Blockchain Aviation Summit and Exhibition (2019), Second ICAO Conference on Aviation and Alternative Fuels (CAAF/2, 2017), Thirteenth Air Navigation Conference (AN-Conf/13, 2018), the Second High-level Conference on Aviation Security (HLCAS/2, 2018), the series of Global Aviation Security Symposia that began in 2017, the Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), Drone Enable Symposia and World Aviation Forum and its adjacent Innovation Fair and Exhibition in 2019.
The aviation sector acknowledged there was a need to adopt new regulatory policies and practices in aviation so as to be able to proactively engage with innovators and encourage their inventiveness. As a result, ICAO, during its 40th Session of the Assembly in 2019, adopted Assembly Resolution 40-27, Innovation in Aviation. This Resolution will require for ICAO to have the ability to move beyond business-as-usual as an Organization, while maintaining the integrity and robustness of its decision-making process. The Resolution encourages “inclusive dialogue at strategic level that will encourage further collaboration and sharing of experience in relation to innovation”, with considerations to be taken for the establishment of a high-level body with the industry to regularly provide strategic advice to the Council of ICAO concerning innovation in aviation
The initiatives and activities undertaken by ICAO in support of innovation in aviation contribute to the achievement of the SDGs and their targets. For instance, Unmanned aircraft systems (drones) offer multiple applications, some of which go beyond basic surveillance, photography, or videos. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and artificial intelligence are being used to improve food quality during crop production or collect soil samples which will support precision agriculture. While the UAS can bring change in the way we do business to support SDG 2, due regulations are required to fully unleash their potential so that they operate in a safe, secure, efficient and environmentally responsible manner.
ICAO also promotes energy innovation at airports, such as solar-at-gate projects, including through the development of a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) methodology in cooperation with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat, and pilot projects for solar-powered gates at airports under the ICAO partnerships with UNDP and the EU. These actions contribute to SDG 7 by increasing the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix and improving energy efficiency.
3.6 Multi-stakeholder partnerships;
Partnerships and collaborative relationships are central to ICAO’s core mission. As the global forum of States for international civil aviation, ICAO proactively fosters cooperation, collaboration and coordinated approaches to achieve its five Strategic Objectives. Below are a few examples of multi-stakeholders partnerships in which ICAO is participating or taking the lead:
Aviation Partnerships for Sustainable Development (APSD) - In 2016, ICAO launched the Aviation Partnerships for Sustainable Development (APSD) to sensitize States, the United Nations, the private sector, as well as the financial institutions and other stakeholders, on aviation’s role as a catalyst for the SDGs. In doing so ICAO invited the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), the UN Office of the High Representative for the LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS (OHRLLS), the World Bank Group (WBG), and the Air Transport Action Group (ATAG) to join. This partnership with representation from the UN system, international and regional organizations, financial institutions and the private sector, is ideally positioned to strategically advocate the linkages between air transport and the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with different constituencies within States. The APSD initiative created visibility at international Summits and technical fora as well with UN and industry.
Sustainable Mobility for All (SuM4All) Initiative - With the recognition that sustainable transport and mobility are fundamental to advance the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the World Bank invited ICAO to join the Sustainable Mobility for All (SuM4All) Initiative. As an active member of the Sustainable Mobility for All (SuM4All) Initiative, ICAO supported the development of the 2017 Global Mobility Report as well as the Global Roadmap for Action (GRA) for Sustainable Mobility, which was launched in 2019. The GRA is the first-ever effort to look at what it takes to achieve the four policy goals (universal access, efficiency, safety and environmental protection) for all modes of transportation. International civil aviation and its regulations in each of the policy goals as well as how innovation in aviation is contributing to sustainable transport is firmly embedded in the GRA. In 2020, ICAO promoted the importance of the GRA with its 193 Member States and incorporated the GRA for Sustainable Mobility within its National Aviation Planning Framework.
3.7 Bolstering local action and supporting sub-national plans/strategies and implementation for the SDGs;
3.8 Leveraging interlinkages across SDG goals and targets;
3.9 Supporting policies and strategies to leave no one behind;
3.10 Supporting the mobilization of adequate and well-directed financing;
While transport and aviation do not have a dedicated SDG, the international community is increasingly recognizing the importance of transport and aviation as catalysts and enablers for sustainable development. ICAO, as a UN Specialized Agency, continuously advocates the benefits of aviation in support of socio-economic development. However, for aviation to be an enabler to the fullest of its potential, financing is needed to enhance aviation systems at the State level to be safe, secure, economically viable, efficient and environmentally responsible.
ICAO established dedicated capacity to mobilize voluntary resources in support of States in their quest to improve global civil aviation and as such contribute to the achievement of the 2030 Development Agenda, the SDGs as well NCLB Initiative. Taking into account the limited capacity of the ICAO Regular Programme Budget to achieve the Strategic Objectives and building on a number of Assembly Resolutions which call on ICAO and the Council to urge States, international organizations and financial institutions to establish partnerships, mobilize resources for technical assistance and make voluntary contributions to ICAO, the Organization developed a Resource Mobilization policy (adopted by the Council in 2016) as well as guidance on how to go about resource mobilization. In September 2019 the 40th Assembly adopted an updated resource mobilization resolution urging States to work with financial institutions so as to prioritize the aviation sector as it supports the achievement of the SDGs as well as the ICAO NCLB Initiative. All of these enable ICAO to engage in active resource mobilization of voluntary resources, establish internal coordination and ensure that resource mobilization efforts are purposeful, strategic, and consistent with other relevant ICAO rules, regulations, policies, and procedures. By implementing the Resource Mobilization Policy, the Resource Mobilization Guidance and updated A40 Resolution, ICAO is aiming to introduce a new way of doing business, whereby the donor is becoming a full fledged partner, sitting at the table from inception to implementation - all the way up to finalization of the project. To facilitate the resource mobilization efforts, ICAO developed tools, a resource mobilization platform and a network of resource mobilization focal points across the Organization. The combination of these is increasing transparency and efficiency in streamlining and coordinating resource mobilization efforts across ICAO.
3.11 Reducing disaster risk and building resilience;
Civil aviation plays an essential role in supporting assistance to States and regions affected by natural disasters, conflicts and pandemics. Various Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation have existing provisions that stipulate requirements for States in respect of emergency planning and disaster relief. The 39th Session of the Assembly of ICAO adopted Resolution A39-24, Strategy on disaster risk reduction and response mechanisms in aviation, which considered the need for the establishment of a framework to guide the Organization’s response to crises and directed “the Council to establish a crisis response policy”, as well as develop a “disaster risk reduction strategy in aviation that would institutionalize and guide the Organization’s strategic approach and tactical responses to aviation-specific crises that could affect the safety or continuity of international civil aviation”. The Resolution also urges States to “take into consideration the disaster risk reduction priorities as contained in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, as well as the best practices of Member States, in the development of their State emergency response plans as well as in the emergency response plan requirements for aviation service providers”.
ICAO spearheads the Collaborative Arrangement for the Prevention and Management of Public Health Events in Civil Aviation (CAPSCA) that coordinates the international aviation response to public health risks, such as pandemics. Through this effort, ICAO promotes the importance of preparedness planning and response to public health events that affect the aviation sector, such as an influenza pandemic, including COVID-19, Ebola and Zika. The implementation of CAPSCA supports the attainment of SDG 3 by strengthening the capacity of all ICAO Member States, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks. CAPSCA is a multilateral partnership that includes the World Health Organization (WHO) and other stakeholders in this endeavor.
ICAO developed comprehensive guidance on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for Humanitarian Aid and Emergency Response (U- AID). This guidance material is a resource for Member States to enable humanitarian aid and emergency response operations using UAS, and enable an expedited review process for urgent operations. It is applicable for States who are in the beginning stages of promulgating UAS regulations as well as those who already implemented UAS regulations. ICAO is also part of an international effort to identify and streamline emergency preparedness at international airports. This is done in partnership with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and additional aviation and humanitarian partners.
While the efforts of ICAO regarding climate change are mainly focused on reducing the impact of international civil aviation on the global climate, the impact of climate change to aviation infrastructure and operations has also been identified as a significant risk for the aviation sector and ICAO’s work on climate adaptation is the foundation of risk preparedness. In order to ensure the resilience of the international aviation system, the role of ICAO in disseminating best practices and guidance is instrumental. Indeed, the ability to engage all stakeholders effectively, from the airports, airlines, air navigation services providers to the energy suppliers and local authorities is a prerequisite to avoid the creation of islands of resilience, with no connection to the rest of the network. Therefore, ICAO has engaged with a number of organizations, including the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), in order to enhance the awareness and preparedness of all. In addition, ICAO recently developed a Climate Change Adaptation Synthesis report which is aimed at identifying the impact of climate change on international aviation infrastructure and services, the level of awareness of stakeholders and possible actions to enhance resilience. These guidance documents are relevant to all ICAO Member States and bring particular added value to States with limited resources and environmental capabilities, therefore serving towards the attainment of SDGs 9 and 11.
3.12 Supporting international cooperation and enhancing the global partnership;
Fostering partnerships that assist States to enhance their air transport systems and effectively mobilize resources by making the ‘business case’ for air transport to be considered an enabler of sustainable development is at the core of ICAO’s work. Reinforced in Resolution A39-25 and A40-21, ‘strengthening partnerships’ is identified in the ICAO Business Plan as a key activity to enhance the efficiency, effectiveness and impact of ICAO’s work. Aiming to provide guidance on the policies, processes and procedures related to ICAO partnership activities, the Secretariat developed a Partnership Framework to identify targeted partnerships to achieve the SDGs
4. The high-level political forum (HLPF) is the central platform for the follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs. Has your organization participated in or supported the work of the HLPF? If yes, please specify your involvement in the following areas:
4.1 Supporting the intergovernmental body of your organization in contributing to the thematic review of the HLPF;
ICAO has been actively supporting the High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) for Sustainable Development from 2016 to 2019.
In 2019, alongside the General Debate of the 74th session of the General Assembly, the UN Secretary-General convened a Climate Action Summit, the High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) for Sustainable Development under the auspices of the General Assembly, an SDG Summit and three high-level meetings of the General Assembly on Universal Health Coverage, Financing for Development and a review of SAMOA Pathway. ICAO was an active member of the High Level Political Forum (HLPF) Task Team and successfully presented the concept note for a side event focused on Aviation’s contributions to the achievement of SDG13 (Climate action). ICAO provided input to the special edition of the SDG report and supported UNDESA in the review of over 600 SDG good practices, success stories and lessons learned by all stakeholders in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs of which the results were made available in an online database.
In 2018, ICAO advocated aviation as an essential enabler of the SDGs at the HLFP regional conferences. ICAO engaged with States – and in particular the countries presenting national voluntary reviews at the HLPF – on the importance of sustainable aviation, as well as transport and sustainable mobility within the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. ICAO also sensitizes States to include aviation, as well as sustainable transport, as catalysts of sustainable development within their national voluntary review progress report. In addition, ICAO has been engaging with States on the importance of international connectivity as this supports socio-economic progress and promotes the inclusion of aviation within national development plans, and consequently national budgeting as a vital step to unlocking funding for aviation needs.
In 2017, ICAO participated in the General Debate and made a statement on how ICAO is assisting its Member States to enhance air transport systems in support of the attainment of the SDGs. A call for action was also made to States to prioritize aviation in their national development plans and include the sector when presenting their national reviews to the HPLF. In addition, ICAO advocated air transport as the cornerstone and catalyst for global connectivity, economic growth and social development at the 2017 Partnership Exchange Special session.
4.2 Contributing to policy/background briefs for the HLPF;
4.3 Helping organize SDG-specific events in the preparatory process;
4.4 Organizing side events or speaking at the HLPF;
At the margins of the HLPF 2019, and with a view to highlighting the contribution to the SDG No. 13 and further raising global awareness on how the international aviation sector is addressing the climate change challenge, ICAO organized a side event entitled “High-level Briefing on Aviation Contributions to the achievement of SDG No. 13 (Climate Action)”. During this side event, representatives from Member States and industry illustrated recent ICAO developments and discussed future opportunities to address emissions from international aviation, by innovative aircraft technologies, operational improvements and green airports, sustainable aviation fuels, and the global market-based measure, as well as capacity building and assistance for implementation.
In 2017, ICAO hosted an Aviation Partnerships for Sustainable Development (APSD) side event at the HLPF. The APSD is an ICAO spearheaded partnership with UN DESA, UN-OHRLLS, WBG and ATAG. During the side event, ICAO and partners jointly presented a high-level briefing on the contributions of aviation to sustainable development in countries in special situation and promoted the benefits of mobilizing resources for and investing in sustainable aviation. A statement was made during the General Debate of HLPF 2017 on how ICAO assists its Member States to enhance air transport systems in support of the attainment of the SDGs.
4.5 Supporting the VNR process.
ICAO’s outreach and visibility at carefully chosen events, as well as its continuous advocacy with national stakeholders to include aviation as an enabler of sustainable development within their VNR progress reports is reaping results. Based on a comprehensive analysis of a total of 107 VNRs submitted by 98 UN Member States from 2016 to 2018, the number of VNRs referencing aviation has more than tripled (from 25% to 77% of VNRs). Over the course of three years, 62 out of 98 States referenced aviation in their VNRs – up from 5 States in 2016.
Among States referencing aviation in their VNRs, a growing number also connect such references to a wider range of SDGs. In all the VNRs, the number of SDGs referenced increased from 4 in 2016, to 8 in 2018. Furthermore, strong anecdotal evidence indicates that States are increasingly considering the ICAO Strategic Objectives as important contributors to achieving the SDGs. The report illustrates selected country cases, around all seven ICAO regions, that display a strong connection with the ICAO Strategic Objectives. This shows that ICAO’s continuous advocacy on how aviation supports 15 out of 17 SDGs is received positively by Member States. By including aviation within the VNR reporting, the States underscore the strong link between aviation and development. ICAO is in the process of updating this analysis to cover VNRs submitted by UN Member States from 2016 to 2019.
The 40th Session of the Assembly of ICAO, which took place from 24 September to 4 October 2019, fully supported enhancement of the strategic reflection of aviation within the Voluntary National Reviews, which are presented yearly at the United Nations High Level Meeting on Sustainable Development. Therefore, the revised Resolution A40-21, Aviation Contribution towards the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, now encourages ICAO Member States “report on aviation, as an enabler of sustainable development, within their VNRs, through establishing linkages with other relevant SDGs”. States are also encouraged to include clear references to the SDGs in their national aviation plans, with the objective of showcasing the contribution of aviation to the UN SDGs and national economies.
5. How has your organization cooperated with other UN system organizations to achieve coherence and synergies in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs? In this regard, has your organization launched or intend to launch any joint programmes or projects in collaboration with other UN entities? Are there any results or lessons you would like to highlight that might help improve the design and impact of such efforts? Has your organization participated in any of the following coordination systemwide mechanisms or any other relevant platform - CEB, UNSDG, EC-ESA Plus, regional coordination meetings, UN-Energy, UN-Water, UN-Ocean, IAEG, IATT? Please specify which and indicate any suggestions you may have about improving collaborations within and across these mechanisms/platforms.
ICAO is an active participant of the Chief Executive Board for Coordination (CEB) as well as the ECESA Plus Principles meetings. ICAO has been invited to join the reinvigorated UN Sustainable Development Group. The Organization is currently evaluating the prospect of obtaining UNDSG membership. ICAO was also a member of the UN Secretary-General High-Level Advisory Group on Sustainable Transport, which provided recommendations to help the world address the challenges as well as the tremendous opportunities that sustainable transport can make possible, and developed the Mobilizing Sustainable Transport for Development report.
Below are some other key initiatives and collaborative arrangements with other UN system organizations:
Aviation Partnerships for Sustainable Development (APSD), together with United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), United Nations Office of the High Representative for Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing (UN-OHRLLS), World Bank Group and ATAG;
Member of the World Bank led Sustainable Mobility for All (Sum4All) Consortium;
Collaborative Arrangement for the Prevention and Management of Public Health Events in Civil Aviation (CAPSCA) together with World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners;
Collaboration with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), on aeronautical frequency spectrum;
ICAO and Universal Postal Union (UPU) collaboration for provision of annual airline traffic and financial data and analyses;
Collaboration with UN-HABITAT for examination of the synergies between sustainable airports and urban development;
ICAO and ILO collaboration within the context of the Next Generation of Aviation Professionals Programme (NGAP), ICAO Gender Equality Programme, and for data collection and forecasting purposes;
Collaborations with UN Women within the context of the ICAO Gender Equality programme and Global Aviation Gender Summits;
Collaborating with United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism (UNOCT) and the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (UN CTED) in the areas of aviation security and facilitation;
ICAO and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) collaboration in regard to improving the security of international air transport and trade;
Collaboration with the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) on connectivity and air liberalization;
Collaboration with International Organization for Migration (IOM), within the framework of ICAO's Traveller Identification Programme (TRIP) programme;
Collaboration with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), on the "eTrade for All" UNCTAD initiative to improve the ability of developing countries, and particularly least developed countries (LDCs), to use and benefit from e-commerce;
Collaboration with UNDP for technical cooperation and technical assistance projects in the field of civil aviation;
Collaboration with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) on humanitarian relief and emergency preparedness;
Close collaboration with the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), International Maritime Organization (IMO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Environment (UNEP), UN Environment Management Group (EMG), and the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in the area of environmental protection.
6. How has your organization engaged with stakeholder groups, both in supporting implementation at the country, regional and global levels, and within your own organization? If yes, please provide main highlights, including any lessons learned. If your organization has established any multi-stakeholder partnerships to support the implementation of the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs, please describe them and how their performances are being monitored and reviewed.
ICAO has a wide variety of projects and activities, which directly or indirectly support the attainment of SDGs. Below is a brief overview of how ICAO collaborates with various stakeholders within the framework of its Strategic Objectives which are all linked to 15 out of 17 SDGs:
Safety - ICAO leads and participates in numerous partnerships to assist States addressing safety challenges, with priority given to sharing information on assistance activities, expertise, technology and resources and coordinating targeted capacity building projects that facilitate the implementation of the SDGs. Through these partnerships, the aviation community ultimately achieves its intended objectives of enhancing aviation safety at both regional and global level. The international coordination provided by ICAO through multi- stakeholder partnerships ensures policy coherence for sustainable development. Major ICAO assistance activities with partners include the following:
Regional Aviation Safety Groups (RASGs) and Planning and Implementation Regional Groups (PIRGs) – RASGs and PIRGs serve as regional cooperative forums that determine regional priorities, and develop and maintain the regional aviation safety plans, and associated work programmes, based on the Global Aviation Safety Plan and Global Air Navigation Plan respectively, as well as other relevant ICAO provisions, integrating global, regional, sub-regional, national and industry efforts for the continued enhancement of aviation safety and efficiency worldwide, supporting the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Cooperative Development of Operational Safety and Continuing Airworthiness Programmes (COSCAPs) and Regional Safety Oversight Organizations (RSOOs) – A number of ICAO Member States have challenges in providing safety oversight and resolving their safety deficiencies due to insufficient financial, technical and/or qualified human resources. ICAO facilitates assistance through the Cooperative Development of Operational Safety and Continuing Airworthiness Programmes (COSCAPs) and supports Regional Safety Oversight Organizations (RSOOs), through which groups of States can collaborate and share resources to improve their safety oversight capabilities. COSCAPs and RSOOs play an important role by supporting the establishment and operation of a performance- based safety system by analyzing safety information and hazards to aviation at a regional level and reviewing the action plans developed within the region. There are several COSCAPs and RSOOs which are already well established and operational in regions around the world.
Aviation Safety Implementation Assistance Partnership (ASIAP) - The Aviation Safety Implementation Assistance Partnership (ASIAP) was established in February 2015. The ASIAP serves as a framework for coordinated efforts that contribute to the provision of assistance to States in support of the achievement of the SDGs. The ASIAP’s objectives are information sharing, prioritizing assistance needs, collaborating on assistance activities, supporting a resource mobilization strategy, and agreeing on outcome indicators. Through this framework, ICAO and its partners coordinate the implementation of safety assistance in priority states. One of the expected outcomes of the coordination is the development of indicators and metrics.
Comprehensive Regional Implementation Plan for Aviation Safety in Africa (AFI Plan) - Adopted by the 36th ICAO Assembly (A36- 1), the Comprehensive Regional Implementation Plan for Aviation Safety in Africa (AFI Plan) was developed to address the concerns expressed by the ICAO Council on the safety status of aircraft operations in the African Region. Implementation of AFI Plan is integrated into ICAO programme of activities, where African states are assisted with their aviation planning, implementation and monitoring mechanisms – contributing as such to the achievements of the SDGs in this Region.
Security and Facilitation – All ICAO’s initiatives in the field of aviation security rely, both globally and regionally, on cooperation amongst States and other stakeholders. The overarching goal is to enhance global security by implementing uniform security measures around the world, a goal that cannot be achieved without an unswerving commitment by all concerned.
Cooperative Aviation Security Programme (CASP) – The Programme aims at assisting Members in ensuring compliance with international Conventions, ICAO SARPs and guidance material related to aviation security by enhancing the aviation security capabilities of the Programme’s participating Member States and Administrations in accordance with the ICAOs relevant provisions and the ICAO Global Aviation Security Plan's aspirational targets.
Comprehensive Regional Implementation Plan for Aviation Security and Facilitation in Africa (AFI SECFAL Plan) - AFI SECFAL Plan is an ICAO Programme intended to assist African States to enhance aviation security and facilitation coordinate and align all capacity-building efforts and resolve systemic deficiencies in aviation security and facilitation in a sustainable manner.
Environmental Protection: ICAO works with various stakeholders including international and intergovernmental organizations as well as industry groups to help guide policymaking, provide support to its Member States, and coordinate actions across the environment agenda. These groups include IRENA, SE4All, ATAG, ACI, CANSO, IATA, ICCAIA, TIACA, IBAC, IFALPA. ICSA provides technical expertise and brings an NGO perspective to developing policies and strategies to reduce emissions and noise from the aviation sector. Some of the projects were ICAO has successfully engaged with the stakeholders in the area of environmental protection include:
ICAO-European Union (EU) project - The ICAO-EU project, Capacity building for CO2 mitigation from international aviation, has been a successful environmental initiative funded by the EU and implemented by ICAO from 2014 to 2019, supporting 14 selected States in Africa and the Caribbean with the development and implementation of States’ Action Plans, and the establishment of CO2 emissions monitoring systems for international aviation. Replicable Solar-at-gate pilot projects were also developed in Burkina Faso and Kenya as part of this project. Building on the success of this initiative, a second phase is about to begin in 2020. The environmental benefits of the implementation of these mitigation measures have been quantified in a total of 107,849 tCO2 emissions reduction per year.
ICAO Assistance Capacity-building and Training for CORSIA (ACT-CORSIA) - ACT-CORSIA is an unprecedented assistance, capacity building and training programme, which was established in 2018 to support a swift implementation of CORSIA. Buddy partnerships, involving 16 donor States supporting 109 recipients States in 2019, are also essential in this process. In the spirit of equity, LDCs, SIDS and LLDCs are also exempt from CORSIA offsetting requirements. They can participate in the scheme on a voluntary basis.
ICAO-UNDP/GEF project - The ICAO-UNDP-GEF assistance project developed a set of guidance documents to support the implementation of State Action Plans, particularly targeting the needs of developing SIDS, on regulatory and policy strategies, financing emission reduction, renewable energies and Sustainable Aviation Fuels. Funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the project was implemented by ICAO from 2015 to 2018, in cooperation with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and included the implementation of two solar-at-gate pilot projects at two international airports in Jamaica, which could now serve as a model for other airports to follow as an emission mitigation strategy.
7. Has your organization organized any conferences, forums or events designed to facilitate exchange of experience, peer and mutual learning in connection with the SDGs? If yes, please provide a brief summary, below and include lessons learned and gaps identified based on the outcomes of these events. Please also include any events you want to organize in the coming years.
ICAO World Aviation Forum (IWAF) – IWAF, organized yearly by ICAO, provides a prime opportunity to identify needs, facilitate financing, foster partnerships and share information and best practices, aiming to accelerate the implementation of ICAO’s Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) at the national level, in support of the NCLB initiative and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The events attract high-level government officials responsible for aviation, transport, science and technology, finance, economic planning, trade, international development and cooperation, and other key portfolios, as well as industry partners and high- tech companies, allowing a holistic approach. Below overview provides the focus of the IWAFs organized to his date:
The aim of the most recent ICAO World Aviation Forum (Montreal, September 2019), was to address, discuss and develop policies, business models, regulatory processes and governance that will drive innovation for sustainable aviation development. The Outcome Statement of the Ministerial Roundtable emphasized the Member States' commitment to continue cooperation in order to facilitate the introduction of innovation in civil aviation and to take full advantage of such technologies to bridge the technological divide between developed and developing countries, as well as the issue of collaborating with emerging start-up companies to modernize the aviation industry to be able to deliver more benefits worldwide.
Fourth ICAO World Aviation Forum (Brazil, September 2018) – resulted in a Communique on Promoting Investment for Aviation Development: Mainstreaming the priorities of the aviation sector in States’ economic development planning” so that aviation can be used as an economic development driver;
Third ICAO World Aviation Forum (Abuja, 2017) adopted the new Declaration and Framework for a Plan of Action for Development of Aviation Infrastructure in Africa within the framework of the Lomé Plan of Action on Tourism (2017 – 2019) of the African Union. It called on the actions by African States, African Regional Economic Communities, and international assistance partners in support of the development of quality aviation infrastructure in Africa in line with the African Union's Agenda 2063. The participants also agreed to continue to work together to showcase the benefits of aviation and obtain related buy-ins from relevant stakeholders in achieving the objective of expanding and modernizing aviation infrastructure.
The Second ICAO World Aviation Forum (Montreal, 2016) recognized special needs and structural characteristics of Small Island Developing States (SIDS), as well as Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in the coordination, prioritization, facilitation and implementation of assistance programmes through the ICAO Aviation Partnerships for Sustainable Development. During the events, particular attention was placed on the work of the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-Level Advisory Group on Sustainable Transport, highlighting the need, inter alia, to: a) integrate all sustainable transport planning efforts with a balanced development of transport modes; b) create supportive institutional, legal and regulatory frameworks at the national level; and c) foster an informed, engaged public as a crucial partner in advancing a sustainable transport solution.
The first ICAO World Aviation Forum (Montreal, 2015) was convened immediately after the adoption of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that same year, and since then ICAO has been working with great determination to establish a solid global consensus on the urgent need for governments to maximize the benefits of aviation, and to continuously raise awareness of aviation’s fundamental importance to the SDGs’ attainment. The Forum explored the wide-ranging socio-economic benefits of an effectively supported civil aviation sector, outlined ICAO’s NCLB goals of supporting improved State aviation implementation and business case preparation for aviation projects with an emphasis on the implementation of ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) and policies, and fostered improved collaboration among States, industry, development and business community partners, and ICAO.
ICAO also organized the following events in connection with SDGs:
Environmental Protection - To follow up on developments in the area of sustainable fuels, the Second ICAO Conference on Aviation and Alternative Fuels (CAAF/2) was held in October 2017 in Mexico City, Mexico. This second Conference endorsed the 2050 ICAO Vision for Sustainable Aviation Fuels, which calls on States, industry and other stakeholders for a significant proportion of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) use by 2050. In order to support the quantification of the 2050 ICAO Vision for Sustainable Aviation Fuels, ICAO held the first Stocktaking Seminar toward the 2050 Vision for Sustainable Aviation Fuels from 30 April to 1 May 2019. This event provided a forum for the exchange of information related to aviation fuels and was the first step toward the establishment of a quantified 2050 Vision.
Following the success of the first Stocktaking Seminar toward the 2050 Vision for Sustainable Aviation Fuels, ICAO will be organizing a Stocktaking Seminar on aviation in-sector CO2 emissions reductions in 2020 (dates to be determined), to further enhance the basis for the quantification of current and future SAF availability and to expand the scope of the stocktaking process. In addition to aviation fuels, this event will aim to collect information from Member States and other stakeholders on the in-sector emission reduction opportunities through aircraft technology improvements, innovations, and operational improvements.
From 2017 to 2019, ICAO has organized regional and global seminars and workshops on the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). ICAO is planning to organize 2020 ICAO CORSIA Regional Seminars the objective of which is to provide further information on the upcoming CORSIA implementation requirements, with particular emphasis will be placed on issues regarding the verification of CO2 emissions, including the State's order of magnitude check of airplane operators' Emission Reports and Verification Reports, as well as on how to report the verified CO2 emissions information by providing hands-on training on the use of the CORSIA Central Registry (CCR).
In 2017, ICAO organized a series of regional seminars to support its Member States develop their Action Plans on CO2 emissions reduction activities from international aviation and to increase States’ awareness on the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation.
Safety and air navigation – ICAO organized various events on safety and air navigation capacity and efficiency including Global Air Navigation Industry Symposium and Safety and Air Navigation Implementation Symposium. In the area of unmanned aircraft systems, ICAO organized DRONE ENABLE, ICAO’s Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Industry Symposia. The 2019 Symposium was held in Montréal, Canada from 12 to 14 November 2019 and was attended by over 400 participants. Unmanned Aircraft Systems can be used for various purposes, including in humanitarian, development and peacekeeping operations, therefore contributing to the achievement of SDGs.
Security and Facilitation – ICAO has convened three annual Global Aviation Security Symposia (AVSEC) from 2017 to 2019. AVESC symposia have provided platforms to take stock, share experiences and lessons learned and address the challenges that the industry faces in the area of aviation security. The symposia have strategically enhanced international cooperation and collaboration to address the threat posed by terrorists targeting civil aviation by reinforcing, strengthening and promoting the international framework of aviation security.
In addition, the Organization convenes ICAO Traveller Identification Programme (TRIP) events with the objective of providing global and regional fora for the exchange of information on all aspects of the ICAO TRIP Strategy as the best way to raise awareness on the holistic traveller identification management concept.
Global Aviation Gender Summit - In 2018, ICAO organized the first ever Global Aviation Gender Summit, hosted by the South African Government, in close collaboration with UN Women and UNESCO. It brought gender equality at to the forefront, to support the achievement of the Sustainable Goals of the 2030 Agenda, in particular SDG 5, and to address future human resources and capacity issues in the sector. ICAO is evaluating the feasibilities of organizing an iteration of the event. The 2nd Global Aviation Gender Summit scheduled to be happening in November 2020 has now been postponed to 2021.
NGAP Global Summits - ICAO has organized two Global Summits in 2017 and 2018 under the Next Generation of Aviation Professionals (NGAP) Programme. The two Summits intended to unite the aviation community, education and labour sectors to address strategies and actions for engaging, educating and retaining the next generation of aviation professionals, and to establish partnerships for the implementation of these actions. The NGAP Programme supports inter alia SDGs 4, 5, and 8.
8. Is there any other information you would like to share, including annual reports of your organization and any impact assessment or evaluation reports? If yes, please use the space below and attach the document(s). Please also use this space to provide any other information, comments or remarks you deem necessary.
Through Evaluation and Audit Office (EAO) which directly reports to the Secretary General, ICAO develops systematic evaluations on the implementation of ICAO Global Plans on a regular basis. The Global Plans aim at enhancing the linkage between ICAO Strategic Objectives, triennial Business Plan and the achievement of the UN SDGs related to aviation at both international and national levels.
For more information on some of the programmes and documents, please click on the following links:
ICAO and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (https://www.icao.int/about-icao/aviation- development/Pages/SDG.aspx)
Assembly Resolutions in Force (as of 4 October 2019) (https://www.icao.int/publications/Documents/10140_en.pdf )
ICAO Global Aviation Safety Plan ( https://www.icao.int/publications/pages/publication.aspx?docnum=10004)
Global Air Navigation Plan (https://www.icao.int/airnavigation/Pages/GANP-Resources.aspx)
ICAO Global Aviation Security Plan (https://www.icao.int/Security/Pages/Global-Aviation-Security-Plan.aspx)
ICAO Annual Reports (https://www.icao.int/about-icao/Pages/annual-reports.aspx)
Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) (https://www.icao.int/environmental- protection/CORSIA/Pages/default.aspx )
9. In your view, what should strategic directions look like for the UN system in support of the 2030 Agenda and SDGs in the Decade of Action? What key elements should they include and what major challenges should they address?
Partnerships for financing – According to the UN Secretary General, in spite of the private sector’s growing interest in supporting sustainable development and the increasing incorporation of the Sustainable Development Goals in public budgets and development cooperation efforts, these changes are not happening at the required scale, nor with the necessary speed. Especially, in view of the response to and recovery from COVID-19 and its worldwide economic impact, securing financing for the implementation of the SDGs might be challenging. In order to scale-up efforts in securing the necessary financing for the achievement of SDGs, it remains crucial to establish new partnerships among members of the UN system and other stakeholders to support sustainable development of transport. This includes exploring innovative financing for sustainable development and multifaceted partnerships with new actors.
Enablers of the SDGs - the Decade of Action will be on track to achieve its full potential only when data about the complex interconnectedness among SDGs and the impact of the enablers on these will be fully understood, analyzed and documented. In today’s globalized world, sustainable transport and its different modes are essential pieces in the achievement of socio-economic development, which is fundamental to achieve prosperity and peace for all. However, socio-economic development also relies on quality accessible-to-all food, education and health – each of one might again impacted by the transport enabler. Hence the importance to better integrate enablers such as sustainable transport into the SDGs narrative, monitoring and reporting.
10. Please suggest one or two endeavours or initiatives that the UN system organizations could undertake together to support the implementation of the SDGs between now and 2030.
The UN might develop a mapping that identifies how each Programme, Fund and Specialized Agency's Strategic Plan/Business Plan is contributing to the 2030 Agenda and SDGs - this will illustrate the synergies and opportunity for joint work and could be a powerful advocacy tool on how the UN system is bringing change.
In addition, setting up a platform of best practices and lessons learned for the UN system organizations would allow them to share experiences (challenges and success stories) and learn from each other.