United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development


H. E. Ambassador Byron Blake
Deputy Permanent Representative
Permanent Mission of Jamaica
behalf of the Group of 77 and China
the Interactive Session of CSDXIII
On Sanitation
12 April 2005
Mr. Chairman,
The issues of access to basic sanitation and hygiene and of
waste water treatment, recycling and re-use are extremely critical to
sustainable development. The effect of lack of sanitation and
sanitation services go well beyond particular individuals or even states.
Good sanitation and public hygiene is a public good.
Provision of these services at the level required and in particular
to meet the Millennium Development Goal target by Developing
Countries face a number of challenges. A number of Policy Actions
and Measures have been identified in the report from the Intergovernmental
Preparatory Meeting (IPM) and also in the presentation
of the Panellists. We thank the panellists. One limitation, one concern
about these proposals is the extent to which they address the practical
constraints to implementation in developing countries identified in the
review process.
The G-77 and China has submitted the proposed policies and
measures to the constraints.
In the area of sanitation there are some key constraints. These
· Lack of financial capacity of governments, municipalities
and individuals, in particular poor individuals and
households. The provision of capital and subsidies to the
individuals is critical. This capital however does not have a
direct financial return to repay the investment. It can
hardly be obtained from commercial sources as loans. This
means that ODA has to be a major source.
· Lack of access to technology and effective technical
solutions including proven local solutions. How do we
make these broadly accessible on professional terms.
· Need for long-term planning. Given the sanitation deficits,
particularly in the poorest countries and among the
poorest sections of the population, there is need for long
term planning and long-term programmes.
· The G-77 and China has specifically proposed a ten year
program on waste-water management. This program will
need to be expeditiously funded at an appropriate level if
many countries are not to slip even further behind on the
sanitation target.
· Waste-water treatment and re-use has the potential to
convert the waste water into a resource. The technology
for conversion, the technology for testing to ensure the
quality and safety of the treated waste water is known but
often expensive. Jamie Bartrary referred to the technology
gap and the potential external or down stream adverse
impacts. The G-77 and China proposes that access be
provided to such technologies on preferential terms.
· Need for behavioural change. Improved sanitation relies
heavily on behavioural change. This require capacity,
education and training in particular communication
capacity. The G-77 and China recommends support for
capacity building, education and training at professional
and other levels in developing countries.
· High level of poverty. Achieving sanitation targets, like
water settlement, depend fundamentally on the reduction
of poverty. Poverty reduction must be linked to
employment creation. Waste water management can be a
major source of employment, if labour is linked to
appropriate technology. Partnerships, appropriately
structured can play an important role and should be
Mr. Chairman,
These are some of the practical measures which are required to
assist developing countries meet the sanitation target.