United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

India

Thank you Madam Chair.
Excellencies, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen,
At the outset let me convey my delegations confidence that with
the Chair?s guidance and stewardship we should be able to move
ahead in a time bound manner in fulfilling our obligations and
commitments as enunciated in principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on
common but differentiated responsibilities with developed
countries taking the lead as reaffirmed in the preamble of the draft
negotiating document in this policy session of CSD 15.
Madam Chair, We recognise that energy security is a pre-requisite
for sustainable development and in this context we associate
ourselves with the statement made by Pakistan on behalf of G-77 on
the thematic area of energy for sustainable development.
Madam Chair, the Indian perspective on energy is shaped by the
fact that the per capita supply of energies in India is only 530 Kg oe,
against a world average of 1770 as such much higher levels of
energy input, doubling every decade, over the next 3 decades are
necessary to ensure that the MDG targets are met and a sustained
target of 8% growth rate of GDP is maintained, as poverty
eradication remains the greatest challenge in India?s sustainable
development programme.
Madam Chair, I would like to briefly highlight that with an annual
growth rate of 7 to 8 % in last decade the electricity has grown by
barely 5% and overall energy consumption less than 3% per year.
This has led to India?s energy intensity in terms of total primary
energy supply per unit of GDP in PPP dollars to decline steadily and
reach a level of 0.18 which compares quite favourably with the
OECD countries figures of 0.19. We believe this decoupling has been
achieved as a result of growing share of services sector which is less
energy intensive; vigorous energy efficiency improvements in the
manufacturing sector such as cement and steel and an aggressive
national policy to promote energy efficiency and renewable which
account for 6 to 7 % of the total grid power installed capacity with a
share of over 2.5% in the electricity mix. We expect that this mix of
market pulls and policy push will continue to spur further
improvement in India?s energy intensity. However given the
abundance of coal reserves in the country the fuel remains in the
main stay of the Indian energy sector accounting for over 50% of the
total energy supply.
Madam Chair, though India does not subscribe to any quota targets
for the renewal energy and we do not accept any outside
monitoring of the same we have set an aim of 14000 mega watts for
renewals in the period 2007-2012, apart from ambitious projects for
solar water heating and remote village lighting.
Madam Chair, the development of renewal energy technologies,
cleaner energy efficient technologies and energy conservation
technologies require concerted global action through join research,
design and development so as to reduce higher development cost
and providing conducive policy framework to encourage
mainstreaming of renewal energy. The developed countries need to
play a proactive role in facilitating transfer of new and renewable
energy technologies by reducing technical and licensing costs in the
short term but with the cap of 0.7% of turn over with eventually
rolling back of these costs to zero Ultimately developed countries
should provide excess to researchers and technologists from
developing countries to the research institutions and also place such
technologies in the public domain in the medium term.
Madam Chair, regarding the Carbon capture and storage, our
position has been that these technologies are yet to become
commercially viable and there are serious safety concerns regarding
the storage of CO2. Further the cost of electricity generated could go
up very substantially if the CCS technologies are adopted in the
present stage of development. We however, agree to international
collaboration in R & D of CCS technologies.
Finally, Madam Chair, on the issue of subsidies, the provision of
targeted subsidies including financial assistance for demonstration
projects and financial incentive for promoting private investment in
the renewal sector, has been one of the major prongs of our policy
to improve access to cleaner fuels and in providing energy at
affordable prices. The aim has been to increase production, expand
the network of distribution and to ensure that the final consumer
price is affordable for the poor. However, we do accept that at
times there is a downside to such subsidies and Government is
taking initiatives to both rationalize subsidies and improve the
targeting.
Thank You, Madam Chair, we assure you of our full cooperation.
Statement by Indian delegation on the thematic area of ?Climate
Change?, 1 May 2007, CSD 15, New York
Thank you Mr. Chairman,
At the outset I would like to state that we fully associate ourselves
with the statement made by Pakistan as Chair of G-77 on thematic
area of climate change and also share the concerns of the Small
Island Developing States as expressed by Mauritius on behalf of
AOSIS regarding the vulnerability of the Small Island States to
adverse impacts of climate change.
Mr. Chairman, tackling the adverse impact of Climate Change is an
urgent imperative as Climate Change manifestations could have
highly disruptive impacts on all of us in the coming decades, but
especially so in developing countries.
With negotiations under the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change for GHG reduction commitments of
the developed countries in the second commitment period having
already begun, in keeping with the principle of common but
differentiated responsibility the political need of the hour is for
developed countries to urgently accept significantly higher
commitments than was the case for the first commitment period
rather than try and renegotiate the compact. This would also give a
long term and strong signal to the private sector and spur the Carbon
market. The use of the Clean Development Mechanism, which is one
successful example of developed and developing countries joint
endeavors using market based mechanisms, would furthermore
contribute significantly to sustainable development. Moreover there
is need to address unsustainable patterns of production and
consumption in developed countries without which no amount of
mitigation efforts are likely to succeed.
Mr. Chairman, There is much talk of setting a stabilization goal. The
IPCC has done commendable work and we appreciate their efforts.
However, determination of a stabilization goal requires detailed
impact assessments at different levels of GHG concentrations so that
there is scientific consensus to allow the UNFCCC to come to an
appropriate decision. It is important to ensure that the application of
the precautionary approach may not be invoked in the absence of
significant scientific evidence of risk. In any case any decision needs
to be arrived at COP/MOP of UNFCCC through multilateral
deliberations.
Mr. Chairman, over the many years of the climate change debate at
various forums, several myths about the actual or potential
contribution of developing countries, including India have been
assiduously propagated. That we are among the major polluters in
the world, that we have done nothing of significance on climate
change, that our future GHG emissions would overwhelm any efforts
by developed countries to abate GHG emissions. The facts, Mr.
Chairman, are different.
Currently, India?s per-capita GHG emissions are only 23% of global
average, 4% of the US, 12% of EU, 15% of Japan.
It is surreal that attempts are being made here to focus the discussion
on what 80% of the world, with less than 50% of GHG emissions
should do, rather than what 20% of the world, with more than 50% of
the emissions are prepared to do.
Mr. Chairman, We also look at climate change in the context of
promises made by the international community for technology
transfer, adaptation and additional financing since Rio, which
unfortunately has not resulted in any effective transfer on the
ground. There is need to give real and urgent effect to these
additional paradigms to tackle Climate Change.
Critical clean technologies have been out of reach of developing
countries because of prohibitive costs. We would particularly like to
see efforts in the area of collaborative R&D, providing additional
resources for developing countries to access clean technologies. We
should also try to see whether critical IPRs can be brought to the
public domain balancing rewards for the innovator with the needs of
humankind.
Mr. Chairman, adaptation, which has not attracted as much
attention as mitigation, is, however, critical for developing
countries and it is clear, that the resources, including technology
R&D and transfer, required globally for Adaptation are of similar
order of magnitude as for GHG Mitigation. For this we should realize
resources from the entire carbon market, as is being done on a
small scale from the 2% levy on the CDM proceeds, apart from
providing new and additional resources. Diversion of ODA resources
from economic growth and poverty alleviation in developing
countries for adaptation is not the answer as development is the
best form of adaptation.
Thank You Mr. Chairman.
Statement by Indian delegation on the Inter-linkages and
Crosscutting Issues, including Means of Implementation, 2 May 2007,
CSD 15, New York
Thank you Mr. Chairman.
I would first of all like to state that we fully associate ourselves
with the statement made by Pakistan on behalf of G-77 on the
thematic area of Inter-linkages and Crosscutting Issues and also
share some of the concerns of the Small Island Developing States
expressed by Grenada on behalf of AOSIS particularly, on the need
for review of all multilateral funding and for looking at ways and
means to reduce the transaction cost in a transparent and
understandable form.
Mr. Chairman,
As all of us are aware the Rio Conference of 1992 provides the
fundamental principles and the programme of action for achieving
sustainable development. It is important to recall that the primary
mandate of the CSD is to review the implementation of
commitments agreed to at major UN Summits and Conferences such
as the JPOI and Monterrey Consensus. The outcome of CSD 15
should clearly reflect policy options and that practical measures to
expedite implementation with time bound commitments that
benefit all, particularly women, youth, children and other
vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the implementation should involve
all relevant actors through partnerships especially between
Governments of the North and South, on he one hand, and between
Governments and major groups, on the other, to achieve the widely
shared goals of sustainable development, as reflected in the
Monterey Consensus notably early and full realization of ODA
targets.
Mr. Chairman,
We should eschew the temptation to accomplish the goals through
environmental norms and standards that we have failed to realize
through the fulfillment of commitments especially in the area of
international cooperation. We have consistently maintained that
without making available means of implementation many
developing countries will not be able to achieve their sustainable
development goals. To this end, we commit ourselves to
undertaking concrete actions and measures at all levels and to
enhancing international cooperation, taking into account the
principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.
Mr. Chairman,
We would like to seek more substantive treatment of how to
promote greater financial flows to developing countries as well as
development and deployment of environmentally sound and
advanced technologies, including clean energy technologies, to
developing countries on favourable terms and on changing
unsustainable patterns of productions and consumption with the
lead to be taken by affluent countries.
Mr. Chairman,
We must remain cognizant of the imperative of poverty eradication
as the primary and overriding objective of developing countries.
Redirection of resources from the development agenda to the
environment is not the way forward. We need to ensure greater
access to innovative and adequate sources of finance for developing
countries, including through means of leveraging public and private
resources. We could also consider establishing financial mechanisms
including disbursal of loans with extended repayment time frames,
micro-finance schemes and revolving funds.
Mr. Chairman,
Furthermore, there is an urgent need to promote technical capacity
building and know how, including through support from multilateral
financial institutions. The focus should be to increase the
investments in R & D while strengthening the arrangements and
incentives of technology transfer on favourable terms to developing
countries, including the LDCs and SIDS while taking into account the
need to balance rewards to innovators and the need for affordable
access to technologies by developing countries.
Mr. Chairman,
We heard with interest in the last two days the issues raised by the
distinguished delegates representing various groups and from
different countries and feel encouraged by the pledges and
commitments made in order to move ahead towards the goal of
achieving sustainable development. We would now wish to see
these commitments being translated on ground in a time bound
manner. The past experience belies such pledges. Let CSD 15 be the
change.
Thank You Mr. Chairman.
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