United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Group of 77 & China

Mr. Chairman, Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen,

It is my pleasure to make this contribution on behalf of Group of 77 and China to our discussion on Climate Change.

Climate Change is an important subject in the thematic clusters of CSD-15 in the context of its relevance to sustainable development. The entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol provided renewed optimism for effectively tackling this problem at the multilateral level. We take this opportunity to renew our call upon all member states that have yet not done so to ratify and implement the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol.

We would like to reaffirm the Rio principles on environment and development, in particular Principle 7 of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities. We would like to highlight that without effective mitigation, all efforts to address climate change will remain fruitless. Developed countries have a particular responsibility in instituting deeper cuts in Greenhouse Gas emissions.

We reaffirm the role; functions and mandate of the CSD in follow up and review of climate change, including financing and technology transfer issues for the implementation of Agenda 21, the JPOI, the Barbados Programme of Action and the Mauritius Strategy.

In the endeavour to promote solutions to the challenges of sustainable development, we must ensure that the priority problems of poverty, hunger and under development remain the center of our attention. These developmental challenges intensify the impact of and vulnerabilities to environmental risks for the developing countries mainly due to lack of their adaptive capacities. As a result, the poorest are the hardest hit and bear the highest and exorbitant costs.

We are concerned about the fact that adverse effects of climate change and associate phenomena including sea level rise and the increase in frequency and intensity of hurricane, cyclones, and other weather events as well as deglaciation, drought and desertification threaten the sustainable development livelihoods and existence of many developing countries and in particular Africa, LDCs, LLDCs, SIDS and disaster prone developing countries;

Mr. Chairman,

Perhaps the most formidable challenges before us in addressing climate change and its adverse effects include: lack of fulfilment of commitments in the Kyoto protocol; inadequacy of financial resources for adaptation efforts; lack of progress to secure access to and transfer of adaptation technologies; degradation of natural resources leading to people?s vulnerability; lack of capacity to predict the timing, frequency, scale of adverse impacts of climate change; inadequate integration of climate change policy and adaptation measures in national development strategies; weak or sometimes absence of climate observation systems and networks; insufficient national institutional capacity for participation in CDMs; lack of adequate arrangements for joint activities at regional and sub regional levels, huge gaps in knowledge relating to climate change; inadequate insurance markets and arrangements to deal with extreme weather events associated with climate change; lack of action to address needs and concerns arising from the implementation of response measures.

Mr. Chairman,

In addition to the policy recommendations already suggested by the G-77 so far, we may submit our further proposals in the coming days. However, the Group would like to re-submit the following policy options for endorsement by CSD-15, which in our view are important to cope with the challenges faced by the world due to climate change:

First, the design of effective mitigation and adaptation policies must take into consideration all those aspects with due regard to commitments made at various Conferences and Summits (Agenda 21, JPOI, BPOA, MSI), the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibility.
Secondly, Encourage Annex 1 countries of the Kyoto protocol to develop insurance markets, arrangements and to sustain operations and maintenance programmes for all related advanced technology implemented in all developing countries, through training and capacity building of all technical capabilities to adequately deal with adverse effects associated with climate change.
Thirdly, developed countries are called upon to undertake and meet their mitigation commitments in accordance with the principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities, and institute deeper cuts in Green House Gas emissions;
Fourthly, Consider evaluation of and streamlining of GEF funding mechanisms in the Resource Allocation Framework (RAF) in order to ease the developing countries including LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS access to GEF financial resources;
Mr. Chairman,

We reiterate our support for the following policy options, as already suggested by G-77 during the IPM, which are reflected in some form in the Chairman?s draft negotiation text:

First, effective climate change mitigation policies and measures by developed countries should include:

Reduction in carbon emissions through the development and use of advance and appropriate technologies;
Combining of measures to ?push? manufacturers toward technological innovation and ?pull? consumers through public education programmes with a view to increase both energy savings and GHG reductions;
Putting in place financial incentives to encourage use of fossil fuels more efficiently, and reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2);
Establishment of comprehensive R&D program for the development of climate change technology;
Ensuring that new technologies designed to address climate change are supported by sound national policy frameworks;
Encourage use of renewable energy resources;
Second, in line with UNFCCC and the Kyoto protocol, adaptation policies for developing countries should be intensified by:

Strengthening funding mechanisms for adaptation activities including through the GEF and other related funds;
Facilitating access to adaptation options and technologies with a view to ensuring availability and access, particularly for the developing countries;
Increasing community resilience to climate change-related disasters by protecting natural resources and enhancing natural services through activities such as watershed restoration, mangrove restoration, reforestation and rangeland rehabilitation among others;
Build capacity to enable prediction of the timing, frequency, scale of impacts by promoting and undertaking studies on predictability, climate variability and its socio-economic impacts in the regions;
Linking national development plans to long term goals relating to climate change and developing strategies on how to address climate change across various sectors;
Strengthening climate observation systems and networks by enhancing research in climate observation systems and dissemination of related information;
Third, efforts to address climate change should involve extensive North-South cooperation. This objective can be achieved through:

Strengthening of North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation in research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives towards mitigation and adaptation to climate change and its adverse impacts;
Developing and strengthening national institutional capacities for participation in Clean Development Mechanisms;
Strengthening of joint implementation at regional and global levels of climate change related activities;
Fourth, activities to counter the adverse impacts of climate change may also include the following:

Promoting capacity building at the national level in the areas of; education and training in observation and prediction of earth system; monitoring, assessment and reporting of climate change variables; research, development and dissemination (RD&D), institutional arrangements;
Promotion, development and facilitation of transfer of appropriate advanced environment friendly technology to developing countries;
Establishment of and promotion of international cooperation and partnerships in climate change related fields;
Encourage countries to share best practices and carry out research, development and dissemination;
Identification of new and additional sources of finance specifically dedicated to climate change;
Encourage simplification and streamlining the rules as well as improve accessibility of developing countries to all the other financial mechanisms;
Encouraging of use of participatory approaches to addressing climate change issues including private-public sector partnerships at national, regional and global levels;
Encourage governments to voluntarily promote the adoption of national plans on major environmental and sustainable development issues, setting goals, including quantitative goals, in the context of the ratification of MEAs;
Encourage the removal of barriers to equal and even penetration of CDM projects in all developing countries, including reduction of transaction costs.
Mr. Chairman,

It is our hope that the outcome of the CSD-15 will facilitate the implementation of policy options to combat the adverse impacts of climate change affecting all of us. We expect that CSD-15 will address the global sustainable development challenges in an integrated and coordinated manner so that we can agree to a set of action-based and development oriented policy options.

I thank you.