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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Group of 77 & China

Statement on behalf of Group of 77 and China by Ms. Farhat Ayesha of
Pakistan Mission to the UN on Climate Change
in the Intergovernmental Preparatory Meeting (IPM) of
Fifteenth Session of Commission on Sustainable Development
New York, February 28, 2007 (afternoon session)
Mr. Chairman, Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen,
It is my pleasure to make this contribution on behalf of Group of 77
and China to our discussion on Climate Change. We thank the Panelists for
their important presentations.
Climate Change is an important subject in the thematic clusters of CSD-15
in the context of its relevance to sustainable development. The entry into
force of the Kyoto Protocol provided renewed optimism for effectively
tackling this problem at the multilateral level. We take this opportunity to
renew our call upon all member states that have yet not done so to ratify and
implement the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol.
We would like to reaffirm the Rio principles on environment and
development, in particular principle 7 on Common but Differentiated
Responsibilities. We would like to highlight that without effective mitigation,
all efforts to address climate change will remain fruitless. Developed
countries have a particular responsibility in instituting deeper cuts in
Greenhouse Gas emissions.
We also take note of the role and mandate of the CSD in follow up and
review of climate change, including financing and technology transfer issues
for the implementation of Agenda 21, the JPOI, the Barbados Programme of
Action and the Mauritius Strategy.
Climate change pose a serious challenge to the developing countries given
their inadequate means and capacities and the challenge of socio-economic
development including eradication of poverty. Increase in sea level,
frequency and intensity of hurricanes, cyclones, drought, desertification
deglaciation, and other extreme weather events threaten the livelihoods and
existence of many developing countries particularly in Africa, LDCs,
LLDCs and SIDS. In the same context, we would like to emphasize the
needs of countries emerging from conflict in the areas of capacity building,
technical cooperation and infrastructure development to achieve sustainable
development goals.
Mr. Chairman,
Perhaps the most formidable challenges before us in addressing climate
change and its adverse effects include: lack of fulfilment of commitments in
the Kyoto protocol; inadequacy of financial resources for adaptation efforts;
lack of progress to secure access to and transfer of adaptation technologies;
degradation of natural resources leading to people?s vulnerability; lack of
capacity to predict the timing, frequency, scale of adverse impacts of climate
change; inadequate integration of climate change policy and adaptation
measures in national development strategies; weak or sometimes absence of
climate observation systems and networks; insufficient national institutional
capacity for participation in CDMs; lack of adequate arrangements for joint
activities at regional and sub regional levels, huge gaps in knowledge
relating to climate change; inadequate insurance markets and arrangements
to deal with extreme weather events associated with climate change; lack of
action to address needs and concerns arising from the implementation of
response measures.
Mr. Chairman,
To address the challenges of Climate Change, we need to take actions at all
levels. In this regard, Group of 77 and China suggest the following policy
options for consideration by CSD-15:
First, the design of effective mitigation and adaptation policies must take
into consideration all those aspects with due regard to commitments made at
various Conferences and Summits (Agenda 21, JPOI, BPOA, MSI), the
UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol in accordance with the principle of
common but differentiated responsibility.
Secondly, effective climate change mitigation policies and measures by
developed countries should include:
? Reduction in carbon emissions through the development and use of
advance and appropriate technologies;
? Combining of measures to ?push? manufacturers toward
technological innovation and ?pull? consumers through public
education programmes with a view to increase both energy savings
and GHG reductions;
? Putting in place financial incentives to encourage use of fossil fuels
more efficiently, and reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2);
? Establishment of comprehensive R&D program for the
development of climate change technology;
? Ensuring that new technologies designed to address climate change
are supported by sound national policy frameworks;
? Encourage use of renewable energy resources;
Thirdly, in line with UNFCCC and the Kyoto protocol, adaptation policies
for developing countries should be intensified by:
? Strengthening funding mechanisms for adaptation activities including
through the GEF and other related funds;
? Facilitating access to adaptation options and technologies with a view
to ensuring availability and access, particularly for the developing
? Increasing community resilience to climate change-related disasters
by protecting natural resources and enhancing natural services through
activities such as watershed restoration, mangrove restoration,
reforestation and rangeland rehabilitation among others;
? Build capacity to enable prediction of the timing, frequency, scale of
impacts by promoting and undertaking studies on predictability,
climate variability and its socio-economic impacts in the regions;
? Linking national development plans to long term goals relating to
climate change and developing strategies on how to address climate
change across various sectors;
? Strengthening climate observation systems and networks by
enhancing research in climate observation systems and dissemination
of related information;
Fourthly, efforts to address climate change should involve extensive North4
South cooperation. This objective can be achieved through:
? Strengthening of North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation
in research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives
towards mitigation and adaptation to climate change and its adverse
? Developing and strengthening national institutional capacities for
participation in Clean Development Mechanisms;
? Strengthening of joint implementation at regional and global levels of
climate change related activities;
Fifthly, activities to counter the adverse impacts of climate change may also
include the following:
? Promoting capacity building at the national level in the areas of;
education and training in observation and prediction of earth system;
monitoring, assessment and reporting of climate change variables;
research, development and dissemination (RD&D), institutional
? Promotion, development and facilitation of transfer of appropriate
advanced environment friendly technology to developing countries;
? Establishment of and promotion of international cooperation and
partnerships in climate change related fields;
? Encourage Annex 1 countries of the Kyoto protocol to develop
insurance markets, arrangements and to sustain operations and
maintenance programmes for all related advanced technology
implemented in all developing countries, through training and
capacity building of all technical capabilities to adequately deal with
adverse effects associated with climate change;
? Encourage countries to share best practices and carry out research,
development and dissemination;
? Consider evaluation of and streamlining of GEF funding mechanisms
in the Resource Allocation Framework (RAF) in order to ease the
developing countries including LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS access to
GEF financial resources;
? Identification of new and additional sources of finance specifically
dedicated to climate change;
? Encourage simplification and streamlining the rules as well as
improve accessibility of developing countries to all the other financial
? Encouraging of use of participatory approaches to addressing climate
change issues including private-public sector partnerships at national,
regional and global levels;
? Encourage governments to voluntarily promote the adoption of
national plans on major environmental and sustainable development
issues, setting goals, including quantitative goals, in the context of the
ratification of MEAs;
? Encourage the removal of barriers to equal and even penetration of
CDM projects in all developing countries, including reduction of
transaction costs.
Mr. Chairman,
It is our hope that the outcome of the IPM and eventually that of the CSD-15
will facilitate the implementation of policy options to combat the adverse
impacts of climate change affecting all of us.
I thank you.