United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Brazil and Nicaragua

11th Session of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals
Statement by Brazil and Nicaragua
Focus area 13 - Conservation and sustainable use of marine resources, oceans and seas;
Focus area 14 - Ecosystems and Biodiversity
Mr- Co-chair,
[Focus area 13 - Conservation and sustainable use of marine resources, oceans and seas]
Regarding focus area 13, entitled "conservation and sustainable use of marine resources,
oceans and seas", I would like to present the following comments:
We acknowledge that item b) is in accordance with Aichi target 10, while item f) is in
accordance with Aichi target 11
In relation with item c), we should preserve the right of developing countries to develop
their fishing industries, in addition to the reference to small-scale fisheries. Such concern
reflects existing commitments under various international agreements, such as: article 5.2
of FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries; articles 24 and 25 of the Agreement
for the Implementation of the provisions of the UNCLOS relating to the Conservation
and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks; as well as
article 10 of FAO Plan of Action for the Management of Fishing Capacity.
In this regard, we request the addition of the following reference in the end of item c):
"taking into account the special circumstances and needs of developing countries".
Item d) is dedicated to the implementation of international regimes on oceans and seas,
but there are no regional and international regimes for all kinds of resources beyond
national jurisdiction. For example, the agreement on biodiversity beyond areas of
national jurisdiction is still being negotiated in the United Nations. In our view, it will be
difficult to agree on targets for implementing commitments that have not been subject to
multilateral agreements.
Regarding item g), we would like to request to preserve focus on the subsidies which
contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, but allowing for the development of fishing
industry in developing countries, in accordance with fishery subsidies provisions in the
WTO. Therefore, we would propose the following target: ""(g) by 2030, eliminate certain
forms of fishing subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, taking into
account the need for special and differential treatment (S&DT) for developing countries."
[Focus area 14 - Ecosystems and Biodiversity]
Mr. Co-chair,
In relation to focus area 14, on ecosystems and biodiversity, I would like to present the
following comments.
Regarding item e), although there is a reference in Rio+20 to "land degradation neutral
world", the meaning of this expression remains politically controversial and scientifically
disputable. There is a Working Group dedicated to agreeing on a definition of the concept
under UNCCD, based on scientific assessments. Since there is no clarity regarding its
meaning and policy implications, item e) as it stands could not be adopted as a target.
In order to have concepts which can be effectively translated into targets and indicators,
we suggest the following language: "to improve the condition of ecosystems affected by
desertification and to reduce the total area affected by desertification, enhancing land
productivity and other ecosystem goods and services in a sustainable manner". Such
proposal is based on objective 2 of the UNCCD 10-Year Strategic Plan (2008-2018).
Item f) deals mostly with the third objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity
(CBD). The issue of fair and equitable sharing of benefits of genetic resources has been
further detailed in 2010 under the Nagoya Protocol, but it is also subject to other
agreements such as the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and
Agriculture or the Antarctic Treaty.
However, item f), as it stands, widens the scope of fair and equitable benefit sharing to
embrace all natural assets. This has no basis on existing multilateral agreements. In order
to preserve the appropriate focus, we suggest to adopt the following language: "ensure
fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from the utilization of genetic resources."
In relation to item g), dedicated to poaching and trafficking of endangered species, we
should devise balanced targets for addressing both supply and demand for endangered
species, as well as providing support for communities affected by such traffic. Such
balance is reflected in the Rio+20 outcome document (paragraph 203) and in the London
Declaration On Illegal Wildlife Trade. Our suggestion would read as follows: "end
poaching and illegal trafficking of endangered species, eradicating demand and supply
for illegal wildlife products and increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue
sustainable livelihood opportunities".
I relation to item h), we suggest being more focused on effective measures for prevention,
early detection and control, as in Aichi target 9. Furthermore, the complete "elimination"
of invasive species is hardly possible in most ecosystems. We propose the following: "by
2020, prevent the introduction and establishment of, control or eliminate invasive alien
Regarding item i), we fully support the commitment to the political inclusion of
indigenous peoples and local communities and to the promotion of their traditional
knowledge. In this regard, we reiterate our request for harmonizing the reference using
the expression indigenous peoples and local communities. We propose the following
language: "ensure inclusion of indigenous peoples and local communities in decision
making, and promote their traditional knowledge".
Still regarding biodiversity, Nicaragua and Brazil would like to present some additional
proposals, which reflect the cross cutting nature of existing commitments. Such proposals
could be included under other focus areas, as indicated:
i) "Integrating biodiversity conservation measures into national and local development
strategies, planning processes and poverty reduction strategies" (poverty eradication)
ii) "Improving education and awareness raising on the values of biodiversity and
conservation and sustainable use measures" (education)
iii) "Developing and applying positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use
of biodiversity, with developed countries taking the lead" (sustainable consumption and
I thank you, Mr. Co-chair.