United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development

Brazil and Nicaragua

10th Session of the Open Working Group on the Sustainable Development Goals
31 March - 04 April, 2014
Cluster 5 - Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns; Climate Change;
Sustainable Cities and Human Settlements
3 April, 2014
Statement by Brazil and Nicaragua
Brazil and Nicaragua fully support the statement made by Bolivia on behalf of the G77
and China and would like to make the following additional comments.
Sustainable consumption and production is central to the transformational
dimension of our work.
We need to get to the core of the issue: all production is consumptiondriven.
The most effective way - perhaps the only effective way - to address
the current unsustainable patterns of consumption and production is to
change the consumerist and wasteful life-styles created and largely adopted
by developed countries.
In the Rio+20 Conference, Member States acknowledged that "all countries
should promote sustainable consumption and production patterns, with
developed countries taking the lead”. This quotation from the 10 Year
Framework Programme recognizes the differentiated responsibilities of
developed nations, as a matter of justice and fairness, in the promotion of
Sustainable Consumption and Production around the world.
Bearing this in mind, Nicaragua and Brazil have the following comments
about focus area 14.
The use of the term "industrialized societies" in the chapeau of the section is
inappropriate as it has no consensual meaning and does not reflect the
agreements on the subject. Both the Rio+20 Conference and the 10 Year
Framework on SCP use the term "developed countries". We therefore urge
the co-chairs to substitute "industrialized societies" with "developed
Items "g" and "h" should be brought to the top of the section and become
items "a" and "b", respectively, as a way to recognize that changes in lifestyles
play a central role in promoting SCP.
Item "h", which, as we understand it, should be the new item "b", should
deliver a stronger message, as follows: "providing social, economic and
environmental sustainability information on products and services to
encourage consumers, especially in developed countries, to adopt
sustainable life-styles"
Introduce a new item "c" with the following wording: fostering collaboration
with the private sector, especially from the creative economy area, to raise
the awareness towards the importance of sustainable life-styles.
Current Item "a" should read as follows: "Significantly improving energy
efficiency and materials productivity. The rate of improvement must be
proportional to the consumption per capita."
Current item "b" could be changed to: "sustainable supply chains, with
special attention to global cross-border supply chains of multi-national
Item "c" should read: "preventing, reducing, recycling and reusing waste, in
accordance with waste production per capita".
Finally, Item "f" must recognize the importance of providing sustainability
to existing buildings. It should read as follows: "Sustainable buildings and
construction, with special attention to the retro-fitting of existing buildings
in developed countries".
Mr. Co-chair,
On Area 15, our first comment it should be entitled, quite clearly, "climate
change", instead of "climate". The term "climate" refers solely to mere
atmospheric observation. We should use the expression "climate change"
instead, which reflects the human interference that causes additional
variability on the natural climate system. "Climate change" is part of the
very name of the UNFCCC. As a matter of fact, it would seem more
coherent to mainstream climate change aspects into each SDG as
appropriate instead of devising a stand-alone goal.
Nicaragua and Brazil wish to express our serious concern with the proposed
text for this topic.
We stress, Mr. Co-chair, the existing consensus in this Group to negotiate
within the boundaries of the UNFCCC. Our work on climate change should
strengthen the ongoing processes under the Convention. They cannot
undermine the rules and principles of the international regime on climate
In this connection, the expression "Regard must be paid to the UNFCCC" is
unacceptable. This group does not have the mandate to prejudge the results
of the UNFCCC. The Open Working Group on SDGs is not supposed to
jeopardize the integrity the agreements under UNFCCC nor should it
overlap and trample the negotiating ongoing negotiating processes under the
Convention. The chapeau of the focus area must reflect that.
The chapeau must also reflect that the agreements under UNFCCC must be
fair, effective and balanced, be based on the principle of CBDR and limit the
increase of global average temperature in order to achieve the ultimate
objective of the convention. The term "strong", currently used to qualify
future agreements under UNFCCC, does not have precise meaning and also
needs to be altered.
For Nicaragua and Brazil, a more adequate formulation for the chapeau
would be as follows: "Climate change poses the gravest threat to
sustainable development and poverty eradication. All considerations related
to this issue must be crafted in accordance with the agreements under the
UNFCCC and its principles and provisions, including equity and common
but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, and support
greater ambition in the ongoing negotiations towards a fair, effective and
balanced agreement in 2015".
Mr. Co-chair,
The discussions about the criteria that should be used to define what is an
"equitable reduction in greenhouse gas emissions" have just started under
UNFCCC. Any mention to "equitable reduction" must therefore be deleted
from the text, as its meaning is yet to be agreed upon.
Another aspect of the UNFCCC negotiations that need to guide the
elaboration of climate change-related considerations in the SDGs is the
necessary balance between actions towards adaptation, mitigation and MOI.
With these objectives in mind, we propose to merge Items "a" and "b",
which would read as follows:
"Combating climate change and promoting adaptation to its adverse effects
through the implementation of policies and measures at national, regional
and international levels consistent with existing and future commitments
under the UNFCCC".
Also seeking to achieve a balance between adaptation and mitigation, we
propose to add "and preparedness to its adverse effects" at the end of item
In order to make the proposed items adequately consistent with CBDR, we
suggest to add "especially in developed countries" at the end of item "c";
Mr. Co-chair,
In the Rio+20 Conference, we agreed that cities can promote economically,
socially and environmentally sustainable societies. We recognized the need
for a holistic approach to urban development and human settlements and
committed to work towards improving the quality of human settlements,
including the living and working conditions so that all people have access to
basic services, housing and mobility.
Also, the text does not address the question of the social and economic
drivers of urban fragmentation which, according to UN-Habitat,
constitute strong impediments to the achievement sustainable cities. We
do not believe that item "h" appropriately captures this aspect,
including as regards the reference to "personal security".
In light of these considerations, Nicaragua and Brazil propose that item
"h" be replaced by the following formulations:
- "Implement public policies to prevent and address geographical
segregation based on income or social position and avoid urban
- "Create public and private spaces to foster interaction between and
integration of different social groups while promoting cultural diversity"
Nicaragua and Brazil also believe, Mr. Co-chair, that we should change the
wording of item "a" so as to appropriately address the issue of housing
without stigmatizing slums. The item could simply read: "Provide
adequate and affordable housing, infrastructure and basic services".
Finally, Item "g" can be enhanced through the following new language:
"Promote sustainable urban planning encompassing economic, social and
environmental sustainability, intensified rural-urban interaction and social