Empowering vulnerable, fisheries dependent communities through Managed-access and Reserve Program
Non-governmental organization (NGO)
Many fishers, and coastal or fishing communities in general, in Indonesia are particularly dependent on healthy coastal and marine ecosystems in their path to achieving sustainable, low carbon, climate resilient development. Furthermore, these fishing communities are vulnerable to exogenous shocks such as climate change. The economies and productive sectors, including the small-scale fisheries sector, are increasingly vulnerable to climate variability. The natural resources these vulnerable fishing communities depend on are therefore a key part of the solution to create greater resilience and adaptive capacity. Coral ecosystems help protect coastlines from storms and erosion; provide habitat, spawning and nursery grounds for economically important food fish species; and provide jobs and income to local economies from fishing, tourism, etc. The initiative, therefore, aims to empower vulnerable, fisheries dependent communities in SE Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, to identify and implement ecosystem based-adaptation measures to restore and sustain small-scale fisheries, conserve critical ecosystems and sustain the ecosystem services needed to enhance adaptive capacity, coastal protection, food security and livelihoods. This is done through proven behavior adoption measures, capacity building, institutional capacity development and introduction of best-available-scientific-data approaches. Rare works closely with provincial and district governments to build support and confidence of allocating Managed-Access and Reserve (MA+R) spatially to secure fishing grounds for small fishers and communities under customary law. This will demonstrate the value of Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) in small-scale fisheries on a sub-national level. At the national level, we support the government in developing national policy on MA+R establishment and in elevating the issue to a fishery development priority reflected in any national development plans including national climate change policies. The outcome of the initiative will be to identify and demonstrate a scalable approach that will improve natural resources and biodiversity of the target countries' coastal zones, while improving livelihoods and reducing poverty through EbA solutions and rights-based approaches. Using ecosystem approaches, social marketing and a community rights-based management toolkit, Rare will work with local partners as well as provincial and national decision makers to improve the resilience of small-scale fisheries, coastal natural resources management, protect vulnerable marine and coastal biodiversity across the country and region (impact). Through a combination of climate and fisheries science and proven behavioral adoption strategies, the project enhanced the adaptive capacities of men and women from local coastal communities as well as provincial and national authorities to sustainably govern and manage their natural resources base and strengthen and restore the role and value of coastal and marine ecosystem goods and services to improve social, economic and ecological resilience to climate change (outcome). As such, the project will focus on and prioritize ecosystems and habitats critical for both social and economic resilience (such as mangroves, coral reefs etc. as buffers to natural disasters) as well as local livelihoods and well-being (e.g. coral reefs, mangroves and sea grass beds as nesting grounds for fisheries).
As the main partner is the provincial government and implementing partners are district governments, the primary target groups will be coastal communities from selected districts whose livelihoods are affected directly by climate change. The secondary target groups will be the entire population of the province that are directly and indirectly impacted by declines in fish stocks (food insecurity). Together with the provincial government, local universities and other partners of the project will engage fishing communities to identify their vulnerability to climate change, the status of coastal and marine ecosystems, fishing practices, and the social and institutional capacity of communities and governments. The initiative is achieving enhanced resilience of 16 vulnerable coastal communities across 10 districts in SE Sulawesi Province, Indonesia and the coastal and marine ecosystems the small-scale fishing communities depend on for their livelihoods and food security. Specific outcomes at local level will include:
(a) Building capacity of the communities around biological diversity, natural resources management (small scale fisheries for this project) and the ecosystem services to strengthen people's capacity to adapt to the consequences of climate change;
(b) Mainstreaming ecosystem-based fisheries management into the new small scale fisheries management regimes. This would include, for example, providing habitat, spawning and nursery grounds for economically important fish species, based on the vulnerability assessments; working with the communities on how to best place the MPA (no take zone) within the managed access area; training fisheries in how to best protect, restore ecosystems to reduce vulnerability and build resilience to climate change;
(c) Building constituencies and political leadership to mainstream EbA measures into local and district policies,
(d) Strengthening the ability of decision-makers at local level to mainstream ecosystem-based adaptation into policy and planning processes. At the policy front, there will be a shifting of priorities of paradigm at all level that is indicated by: (d.1) changing the mindset of government to fully support local communities in their decision-making processes to manage their own resources and build local adaptation plans, including EbA measure within them, and (d.2) ability of communities to implement data-based best practices such as catch monitoring systems, harvest control rules, etc. which contributes to efficient information sharing with local and national authorities.
It is expected that at the end of the initiative, 16 communities (140.993 people and 35,045 households from 175 villages) across 10 districts in the province will receive governor-approved decree to manage a total of 241,677 hectares (including 13,296 no-take-zone areas in it) MA+R areas. There will also be an increase in knowledge, attitude and practice of fishers in these 16 communities that is shown from pre- and post- initiative household survey results. In addition to these expected impacts, to improve social and economic resilience, financial inclusion training will be given to more than 1,000 households and at least 20 community-based saving clubs will also be established.
Fishers and coastal communities of South East Sulawesi Provincial Government and 10 District Governments in SE Sulawesi Province; i.e. North Konawe, South Konawe, Konawe Islands, Bombana, West Muna, Muna, North Buton, Buton, South Buton, Central Buton
SDGS & Targets
Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution
(a) Index of coastal eutrophication; and (b) plastic debris density
By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
Number of countries using ecosystem-based approaches to managing marine areas
Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels
By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information
By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation
Degree of implementation of international instruments aiming to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing
By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism
Sustainable fisheries as a proportion of GDP in small island developing States, least developed countries and all countries
Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries
Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets
Degree of application of a legal/regulatory/policy/institutional framework which recognizes and protects access rights for small‐scale fisheries
Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of "The future we want"
Number of countries making progress in ratifying, accepting and implementing through legal, policy and institutional frameworks, ocean-related instruments that implement international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, for the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and their resources
SDG 14 targets covered
|14.2||<p>By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans</p>|
|14.4||<p>By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics</p>|
|14.7||<p>By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism</p>|
|14.b||<p>Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets</p>|
Deliverables & Timeline
Data collection including PRA, fisheries profiling, household survey, CCVA studies and behavior adoption strategy study
Submission of MAR proposals/documents from 16 coastal communities to the Governor of SE Sulawesi
Granting access through Governor Decree to 16 communities to manage marine waters and resources contained therein sustainably
Implementation of action plan as stipulated in the MA+R proposals/documents by 16 coastal communities
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- Asia and Pacific
The Indonesia's Ministry Of Fisheries and Marine Affairs and Indonesia's National Planning Agency (BAPPENAS)