United Nations经济和社会事务部 可持续发展

European Union

· Current global patterns of energy supplies and consumption are not sustainable.
Increasing demand for energy is challenging global production capacity with, on current
trends, large new investments needed to meet higher demand over the next 25 years.
There are serious and interlinked challenges in tackling climate change, avoiding air
pollution, safeguarding human health, promoting environmentally sound energy and
achieving sustainable development on a global scale. We should further reflect that
current patterns of energy production and use are a cause of large scale deforestation,
reduced biodiversity, greater air pollution adding to climate change and a direct health
risk to people everywhere.
· The WSSD outlined the goals, while the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI)
together with subsequent events provides clear commitments by governments. The EU
wants to see progress on a global scale in fulfilling the commitments embedded in the
JPOI.
· The EU believes that the principal objective of CSD 14/15 is to accelerate the
implementation of JPOI objectives and commitments to steer the world onto a markedly
and truly sustainable energy path, in line with the shared objective to avoid air pollution
and climate change, and to increase access to reliable, affordable, economically viable,
socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services amongst the world?s
poor.
· As global energy demand is expected to grow by 60% over the next 25 years (based on
the policies in force to day) urgent action is necessary to limit the increase of the related
CO2 emissions. In order to avoid dangerous interference with the global climate, overall
mean surface temperature increase should not exceed 2° C above pre-industrial level.
Climate change already today is leading to high social and economic costs, particularly in
the developing countries, hampering efforts to achieve the Millennium Development
Goal?s.
· In measuring progress, we consider it important to ensure effective and meaningful
review and follow-up of outcomes of CSD 14/15 on energy. This should build on the
recommendations of, inter alia, JREC, Bonn Renewables2004, BIREC 2005 and the
Energy for Sustainable Development Conference on renewable energy but also
encompass efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce the environmental impacts of
fossil fuels.
· Examples of progress made by the EU, in cooperation with other partners include the EU
Energy Initiative, Emissions Trading Scheme and Environmental Technology Action Plan
as well as partnerships such as REEEP, REN21, MEDREP and JREC. We also welcome
the outcomes of the Beijing Renewable Energy Conference and the recent Berlin
Conference on sustainable energy consumption, which CSD14 can usefully build on.

Improving access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and
environmentally sound energy services
· Access to reliable, affordable and environmentally sound energy services is an important
factor determining the quality of human existence. Secure energy supplies are essential
to sustained economic growth, while sustainable development cannot be achieved with
environmentally harmful energy production and consumption patterns. In short: Socioeconomic
wellbeing and sustainable livelihoods need environmentally sound behaviours
by civil society, business and individuals.
· The EU is of the view that the gender-related conditions associated with energy sourcing
and consumption has to form the basis for energy related interventions. In many
developing countries and economies in transition, women are carrying the major burden
related to unsustainable bio mass sourcing, handling and consumption. As such women
and girls, have the most to gain from more advanced energy technology and efficient
energy use, in terms of physical burdens, health hazards and ultimately also timeconsumption.
In relation to energy-management at the household and community level,
women are strong agents for development and should constitute the starting point for any
intervention when appropriate.
· The UN Millennium Development Goals will not be achieved without improved access to
reliable and affordable energy in developing countries. Energy to meet basic human
needs should be a development priority, recognising the 1.6 billion people have no
electricity in their homes and 2.4 billion rely on basic, traditional biomass for their daily
cooking and heating requirements.
· We would in particular like to stress that the JPOI focus on the role of energy in
facilitating the achievements of the MDGs and on potentials of viable energy efficiency
and affordable renewable energy resources and technologies. Securing substantial
progress in this area will provide a strong impetus for improving access to reliable,
affordable and environmentally sound energy services in support of sustainable
development.
· Basic cooking stoves using traditional biomass are seriously inefficient, as well as a
health and safety hazard, especially to women and children. The dire need of coping with
these inequalities while profoundly changing energy consumption patterns in all countries
calls for a markedly different energy path in both developed and developing countries.
· In addressing the challenge ahead it is crucial to stress that energy access for basic
needs can be achieved to meet the MDGs simultaneously. Success in the struggle
against poverty is achievable. We believe that economic growth can be reached while
curbing major increases in the global primary energy consumption. A sustainable and
clean energy path, which includes higher energy efficiency, a substantial increase in the
use of renewable energies and better energy technologies, is possible for all countries.
· The EU?s own Energy for Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Development Initiative
(EUEI) - launched at the WSSD as a joint commitment by the EU member states and the
European Commission - has been instrumental in creating synergies and coordination
among Member States and the Commission, as well as providing an important framework
for policy dialogue with developing countries, international organisations and other
stakeholders. As a result, access to modern, affordable, sustainable, efficient, clean
(including renewable) energy services is now a priority area in EU Development
Cooperation. Energy also has a key role in important new initiatives such as the Africa-
Europe Partnership on Infrastructure.

· The EU is also particularly committed to supporting flexible mechanisms, such as CDM
projects, with designs that can help both providing affordable energy to poor people and
to create employment opportunities in the pursuits of producing for instance biomass.
· Moreover, the EUEI has mobilised significant resources and actions, including the
recently approved EURO 220 million for a new ACP Energy Facility for the delivery of
energy services to rural and peri-urban areas and the COOPENER programme, financing
projects aimed at creating necessary institutional conditions for improved access to
energy.
· In the wider context of development, the EUEI Partnership and Dialogue Facility (PDF)
supports national and regional energy planning, while the European Commission in the
framework of external instruments is setting up a Thematic Programme on Environment
and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources, including Energy, which will support
sustainable energy options in developing countries and contribute to poverty reduction.
The creation of innovative public-private financing mechanism will be a key issue.

Enhancing energy efficiency to address air pollution and atmospheric problems,
combat climate change, and promote industrial development
· Energy efficiency - together with the increased use of renewable energy sources ? should
be a key component of energy policy. Energy efficiency meets all three goals of energy
policy: security of supply, competitiveness and protection of the environment.
· Following the oil price shocks of the 1970s, many countries introduced mandatory energy
efficiency standards for new buildings to supplement older standards for structural
strength and fire safety.
· OECD countries, for instance, generally began by introducing energy-efficiency
standards for each building element, including windows, walls, roofs, and systems for
space heating, water heating, ventilation and air conditioning.
· The EU Commission has recently estimated an EU energy saving potential of 20% by
2020, taking into account measures already implemented by EU member states and
proposals for a series of additional measures at national or EU-level. In addition, the EU
is considering raising the share of renewable energies to the level of 15% by 2015 and to
raise the proportion of biofuels, considering a target of 8%. In order to access this
potential the important role of the consumer must be emphasised. Education on the
preciousness of energy resources and the responsible use of them should start from an
early childhood.
· We encourage the developed and developing world alike to remain focused on continuing
increasing energy efficiency, with developed countries taking the lead in changing
unsustainable patterns of consumption and production and facilitating technology transfer
and technology related capacity building.
· We need to transform the way we use energy. To do this, we can use sustainable
consumption and production approaches such as encouraging innovation in energy-using
products and using the power of public procurement to pull products through to market.
The Marrakech Process and Task Forces, that currently focus on sustainable lifestyles,
sustainable product policies, co-operation with Africa, sustainable procurment,
sustainable tourism, and sustainable building and construction , will be important in driving
forward this work.
· Climate change is likely to have major negative global environmental, economic and
social implications, and to avoid irreversible impacts of climate change, the EU holds the
view that the global mean surface temperature increase needs to be limited to no more
than 2ºC above pre-industrial levels.
· Adverse effects are already being noted. Much larger reductions in emissions will be
needed if dangerous climate change is to be avoided. We strongly welcome the outcome
of the Montreal Climate Change Conference having initiated important processes to
strengthen and further develop both the UNFCCC and the Kyoto protocol.
· We must strive towards lesser dependency on fossil fuels on a global scale. In the
European Union we have achieved some success in pursuing a shift towards increased
use of renewable energy, which not only contributes positively to decoupling CO2
emissions from economic growth, but also realising direct economic gains for households
and business applying such technologies.
· We encourage nations in developed and developing countries alike to built on their own
and other countries? positive lessons in dealing with emerging issues and define
ambitious, but realistic goals in further diminishing CO2 emissions through energy
efficiency and increased use of renewable energies in a sustainable manner. In doing so,
we acknowledge the specific responsibility by countries in the developed world to
promote appropriate technology transfer and the means to help establish renewable
energy strategies and interventions.

Meeting growing needs for energy services through increased use of renewable
energy, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, including advanced and
fossil fuel technologies
· The recent year?s geopolitical developments and surging energy prices have shown that
the short-term risks to security of energy supply are growing while at the same time
energy demand is constantly increasing. The world?s vulnerability to supply disruptions
will increase as international trade expands, and flexibility of oil demand and supply will
diminish. Energy expenditure will occupy a still larger share of the economy, especially in
countries lacking own energy resources.
· The different energy-related challenges are unevenly distributed among countries.
Diversified challenges and circumstances require site-specific and custom-made
solutions. There is a profound need for flexible and pragmatic approaches while adhering
to common goals and commitments. We therefore recognize that countries and regions
experience different challenges and opportunities, which must be taken into consideration
in any global assessment of implementation. The EU believes every country, depending
on its specific situation regarding energy production and consumption, should make its
energy portfolio more sustainable and more efficient.
· The EU believes that a momentum for serious actions by governments has materialised
due to the convergence of steep rises in oil prices and an increasing political readiness to
acknowledge the challenge at hand and the socio-economic consequences of inaction.
Energy efficiency as well as security of supply is now placed higher on the agenda than
at any time since the seventies due to its simultaneous impact on carbon emissions and
industrial competitiveness.
· The trend towards convergent energy priorities by governments is reflected in numerous
initiatives since the WSSD in Johannesburg. Many such initiatives at the national and
multilateral level deserve praise and mentioning. Among these are the UN-Energy
providing a possible framework for assisting governments in national policy making; The
Marrakech process on sustainable Consumption and Production with it?s many initiatives
related to sustainable energy production and consumption; the 39 WSSD energy
partnership with their array of bilateral, regional and multilateral initiatives; the Bonn
renewable 2004 conference and it?s resulting declaration and action programme; the
Beijing International Renewable Energy Conferences 2005 commitments towards
increasing the global share of renewable; the Johannesburg Renewable Energy
Coalition?s promotion of renewable energy through cooperative efforts, and finally the G8
Gleneagles Plan of Action on Climate change, clean energy and sustainable
development.
· The Johannesburg Renewable Energy Coalition has been instrumental in enhancing the
dialogue and common understanding on the potential of and barriers to be overcome in
the area of renewable energy. JREC is chaired jointly by the European Commission and
Morocco, and has grown from 66 to 91 countries, 57 of which are developing countries.
Together we have supported the Bonn 2004 and Beijing 2005 renewable energy
conferences, and are now working on concre te proposals for action for CSD15 in the
policy and finance area.

Investing in energy and industrial development: challenges and opportunities
· Common areas of priority has emerged between nations with otherwise different
agendas, and the higher price of oil is changing the feasibility and market conditions for
renewable energy, environmentally sound energy technology and energy savings in
households, the public sector, industry and transportation.
· Financing remains a significant barrier to implementation. One of our objectives for this
cycle needs to be identifying options for bridging the finance gap for cleaner energy
technology and services. The recent World Bank Energy Week outlined some of the
risks and the options. We should seek to build on this work and experience. Following the
Gleneagles G8 Summit, the World Bank is leading on the development of an Investment
Framework for scaling up public and private investment into low carbon technologies.
· Barriers also remain in the areas of governance , including the integrating of access to
energy services into national development / poverty strategies; in finance including
finding a way to meet the cumulative investment need of $16 trillion between 2003 ?
2030 to meet projected energy demand by converting the world?s resources into available
supply; in building the capacity of governments, businesses and local communities
including through the provision of information, and in technology, where further research,
development, cooperation, transfer and su pport is required. A conducive investment
climate and innovative finance, such as the CDM and JI are essential to tackling this
challenge.
· At the country level, there is a need for development of coherent and long-term national
strategies for energy access, energy efficiency, energy diversification, renewable energy,
reducing the environmental impacts of fossil fuels etc. In achieving a consistent
sustainable energy development more vigorous actions are required by governments in
partnership with key stakeholders
· EU encourages CSD14 to add emphasis on the need for integrating full-fledged energy
dimensions in national development plans, including Poverty Reduction Strategies,
national development strategies and other relevant policy plans. Aspects to be covered
include access to affordable energy and technology, energy efficiency, use of local
energy sources and actions to tackle climate change and manage climate risks.
· We need to add focus on the instrumental role of public authorities, inter alia in the
phasing out of harmful energy subsidies as set out in paragraph 20(p) of the JPOI and in
the design and implementation of incentives with the view to promote efficient,
transparent and competitive markets for energy. In line with this, EU also supports an
improved use of regulatory and marked based frameworks and incentives.
· The improvement and optimising of efficiency in energy markets also calls for the use of
transparent and competitive public and private procurement and effective exchange of
best practices, including partnerships between relevant actors in the market.
· In relation to international energy governance, the EU calls for energy policies which
considers long term energy needs; effective administration; policy coherence with related
sectors; economic instruments and conducive investment climate; infrastructure
investment, and at the regional level EU finds a need for enhanced emphasis on
strategies for regional beneficial cooperation and trade of energy, while at the global
level, there is a need for strengthened global coordination and cooperation among the
multilaterals and various international initiatives and decisions as well as securing more
financing for the energy sector through nurturing investor confidence by creating enabling
environments for investors, including the protection of intellectual property rights.

· We welcome the Sustainable Energy Finance Initiative of UNEP providing a platform that
facilitates financiers with the tools, support, and global network needed to conceive and
manage investments in the complex and rapidly changing marketplace for sustainable
energy technologies.
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