United NationsДепартамент по экономическим и социальным вопросам Sustainable Development

Jordan

Jordan delegation intervention during the morning session of the CSD14
Conference Room 2, May 05th, 2006.
As for regional cooperation, it is important that Donor organization and countries support
Regional cooperation and Projects.
One of the regional project that Jordan is supporting is the Trans-Mediterranean Renewable
Energy Cooperation "TREC"
The TREC project would initiate a common market and an interconnection infrastructure for
renewable e nergies among the countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The
technologically highly developed European countries in the North are using fossil fuels
heavily for their energy demands, thereby excessively burdening the global atmosphere with
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The countries to the south and east of the Mediterranean
have vast but unused sites offering superior solar and wind energy resources. High-voltage
direct current (HVDC) interconnections enable low -loss transmission to be made over great
expanses at low cost. Existing pipelines can already transport hydrogen from renewable
electricity as an admixture to natural gas.
Combining wind and solar power from large and from far distant regions can significantly
reduce fluctuations by compens ating effects.
Please find attached a description on the TREC project.
Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation TREC Paper for Arab Thought Forum and Club of Rome, Amman 2003
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Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation ?TREC?
for development, climate stabilisation and good neighbourhood
The TREC Development Group1,
Formed by initiative of the German Association for the Club of Rome, and of the Hamburg Climate Protection Foundation
HKF. Contact addresses:
Malek Kabariti malek.kabariti@nerc.gov.jo, Uwe Möller moeller@clubofrome.org, Gerhard Knies knies.gerhard@t-online.de
1. Sustainability and renewable energies
In the coming decades humankind is facing the great challenge of coping with the ever-increasing demands
of the growing world population. Only by closing the crucial gap between rich and poor we will
have a chance to preventing the many potential conflicts threatening the future of humankind. This of
course will lead to a huge increase in energy demand, which cannot and must not be covered by fossil
and nuclear fuels. We are not only facing finite reserves of fossil energies, but also have to deal with
the growing climate risks arising from their use. In a ?new solar age? we can solve this dilemma by
employing today?s technologies to exploit the enormous potentials of renewable energies, and by
using the manifold opportunities for increasing the energy efficiency with new technological solutions .
Simultane ously, modern transmission and communication technologies and the process of
globalisation provide new options of trans -regional coop eration with substantial synergies for climate
security and economic development. We are proposing a project along these lines.
2. Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation ?TREC?
An important step towards a stable, sustainable and peaceful world could be made by a Trans-Mediterranean
Renewable Energy Cooperation. Fig.1 shows the basic idea:
TREC Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation
Infrastructure for Sustainability
Coastal solar thermal complex:
power&desalination in cogeneration,
development of new settlements,
solar heat storage for day/night
operation.
wind,
hydro, power and storage
biomass,
geothermal,
High voltage direct
current transmission grid (HVDC),
stage 1 and future extension
Power Transmission losses NA/NE ?
Europe < 15%
Clean power for Europe
Hydrogen for Europe
Power and f resh water for NA/NE
Production of wind turbines and solar
collectors in NA/NE
Figure 1: Renewable energy optimisation by long distance power interconnection and synergy exploitation of
resources in Europe and North A frica/ Near East (hereafter: NA/NE).
1 Names of persons involved: Khalid Benhamou, Saharawind , Morocco; Dr. Abdelaziz Bennouna, Centre Nationale
de la Recherche, Morocco ; Hans -Jörg Brügmann, Dipl.-Ing., Germany; Gregor Czisch, Dipl.-Phys., ISET, Germany; Hans-
Josef Fell, Member of Parliament, Gerrmany; Dr. -Ing. Manfred Fischedick, Wuppertal Institut, Germany; Dr. Armin Haas,
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Global Change & Social Systems, PIK, Germany; Dr. -Ing. Michael F. Jischa,
German Association The Club of Rome, Germany; Dr. Malek Kabariti, National Energy Research Center, Jordan; Dr.
Gerhard Knies, Hamburg Climate Protection Foundation HKF, Germany; Harry Lehmann, Dipl.-Phys., ISUSI, Institute for
Sustainable Solutions, Germany; Klaus-Peter Lehmann, Dipl. -Ing., elexyr, Germany; Dr. Paul Metz, European Business
Council for a Sustainable Energy, e5, Netherlands; Dr. Axel Michaelowa, HWWA, Germany; Uwe Möller, German
Association The Club of Rome, Germany; Dr.-Ing. Hani El Nokraschy, Germany/Egypt; Honorat Satoguina Dipl. EBA, Benin;
Dr. Christian-D. Schönwiese, University of Frankfurt, Germany; Dr. -Ing. Franz Trieb, DLR, Germany;
Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation TREC Paper for Arab Thought Forum and Club of Rome, Amman 2003
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The TREC project would initiate a common market and an interconnection infrastructure for renewable
energies among the countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The technologically highly devel -
oped European countries in the North are using fossil fuels heavily for their energy demands, thereby
excessively burdening the global atmosphere with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The countries to
the south and east of the Mediterranean have vast but unused sites offering superior solar and wind
energy resources. High-voltage direct current (HVDC) interconnections enable low -loss transmission
to be made over great expanses at low cost. Existing pipelines can already transport hydrogen from
renewable electricity as an admixture to natural gas. Combining wind and solar power from large and
from far distant regions can significantly reduce fluctuations by compensating effects.
· If Europe decides to buy a substantial volume of its energy as solar and wind elec tricity from
the less developed countries in North Africa and Near East (hereafter referred to as NA/NE),
and
· if the NA/NE countries develop the capability and capacities of producing renewable electricity
from sun and wind , with technical and financial support from Europe
then the proposed Trans-Mediterranean Renewable E nergy Cooperation could
· turn the formerly contradictory goals of climate protection and economic development into mutual
reinforcing objectives by making clean energy production in NA/NE for both local and
European markets a motor of industrial and socio-economic development in NA/NE countries
· help transform the Mediterranean from a region of various divides and conflicts into a region
of harmonised socio-economic development, cooperation and good neighbourhood.
3. Present status of renewable energy use.
The technologies required for the proposed TREC are already available. Wind energy converters and
concentrating solar thermal power stations have been successfully developed in Europe and in other
parts of the world. Their functionality and reliability have been proven in many years of practical application,
and their production costs have continuously decreased. Information on wind and on solar
radiation is available from satellite and terrestrial measurem ents for most regions of the world. At the
most productive solar and wind sites in the NA/NE region, they would already be nearly cost
competitive with energies from fossil fuels if financial conditions were adapted to their specific longterm
investment needs . After future anticipated cost reductions due to economies of scale and
continuing technological refinements, they will become economically viable and competitive at more
and more sites in Africa and other regions in the world. On-shore wind and solar energy potentials in
NA/NE are superior to the European sites in terms of quality (intensity by factors up to 3) and of
quantity (size and availability of sites ), as visible in Fig. 2 left. The potential of the good (green) areas
in the Sahara exceeds the EU power demand of ca. 2500 TWh/y by a factor >300. The trade winds in
North Africa (Fig.2 right) are very steady and almost without lulls, with a potential of many times EU
demand. Wind and solar potentials harmonise seasonally with European off-shore sources of wind
power that are strongest in winter, while sun and wind in the N A/NE regions are stronger in summer.
Figure 2 left: Annual average electricity generating potential of concentrating solar thermal power plants in
MW/km², averaged over an area of 5x5 km². For annual production per km² (GWh/ km²/y) multiply colour code
numbers with 8760 h. White areas are excluded due to other land use and land cover. Right: Yield of a variable
speed wind turbine at 80m height in terms of full load hours per year for a spatial resolution of 1.125°x1.125°,
corresponding to 125kmx110km(Sahara, 70km North Sea), averaged over 10 years. For annual production
multiply with rated power of the tur bine. Source: DLR, ISET; radiation derived from ECMWF, NCEP/NCAR, wind
from ECMWF.
Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation TREC Paper for Arab Thought Forum and Club of Rome, Amman 2003
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Special sites with extremely good wind conditions have been found along the Saharan Atlantic
coastline and in Egypt along the Gulf of Suez, yielding 4000 to 6000 full load hours (FLH) per year.
They do not show up properly in the coarse grid of Fig.2. Here electricity production costs would be
below 3?c/kWh. This compares favourably with the 1500 to 2500 FLH typical for on-shore sites in
Germany.
Detailed studies have shown that a Trans-Mediterranean interconnection of renewable energy
resources as outlined in Fig.1 employing an efficient combination of decentralised and centralised
structures could already provide a supply of ?clean enough? electricity, i.e. electricity with a share of
more than 80% from clean renewable sources, on demand throughout the year using existing
technologies , at costs not exceeding the current tariffs. With existing hydropower installations, mainly
in Scandinavia, the Alps and the Pyrenees, electricity can be stored equivalent to more than 1 month
of EU power consumption. In view of foreseeable price reductions for renewable energy technologies,
the TREC project is a gate way to clean and low-cost power for Europe and NA/NE on a long term and
inexhaustible basis. The sooner this transition, the sooner these benefits will be realised.
The initial phase of TREC would need some financial and a great deal of political support. Wind
energy is already cost competitive at especially good locations. At the excellent sites in southern
Morocco, an initial project could already demonstrate the entire TREC concept. Solar thermal power
needs preferential financing during the start-up phase; however the required support would be
significantly lower than the 7-10 billion Euro continuously spent every year for coal and nuclear power
subsidies in the OECD, and not longer than for about 5 years. This time period has been estimated to
be sufficient for breaking even with oil at around 25$/bbl. Costs for solar and wind electricity will
continue to fall while those for fossil fuels will ultimately rise, leading to grow ing savings for national
economies in the future. The proposed Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation could
trigger such a development.
4. Development in NA/NE through clean energy production for Europe
By this coopera tion, NA/NE countries could take advantage of their superior solar and wind potentials
and generate clean electricity as a competitive industrial product for export to the European market.
The production of electricity from solar radiation and wind energy requires greater manufacturing
efforts and equipment installations than necessary for extracting crude oil or natural gas. Th e widespread
industrial activities and technological developments involved will create many jobs at different
levels of skills and qualification.
Features of TREC
· hundreds of distributed solar
power & desalination plants,
with 10 ? 400 MW-el.
· Wind & solar power, and
hydrogen for export from
NA/NE to Europe, and for
local demand
· interconnecting HVDC grid
· water desalination for NA/NE in
cogeneration
· component production in
NA/NE
· industrial & socioeconomic
development in NA/NE,
· faster climate stabilisation
· create jobs in NA/NE instead of
CO2 in Europe
Power of 250 TWh/y is about 10%
of the EU annual electricity
consumption, and also about the
power generated from imported
coal in the EU. Such a capacity
could be installed within 20 years.
Trans- Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation
Figure 3: Circuit of development. CO2 reduction in Europe fosters development for North Africa/Near East.
sun
human resources,
industrialisation
EU, replace import of coal
and gas by clean power
sea
water
fresh water
10 bill. m³/y
?100+? distributed
solar power &
desalination
complexes
HVDC grid for solar
electricity , 250 TWh/y,
ships and pipe lines for
hydrogen
cash flow
ca. 10 bill. ?/y
technology
+ know how
development
CO2 emissions
- 200 Mt/y
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In the future, hydrogen produced by clean power may also become an important item for export to the
world market. Surplus power at times of high production and low demand could be used to generate
hydrogen, which w ould be fed into existing pipelines. This decarbonisation of natural gas would reduce
the climate impact of its use, while gradually building up a hydrogen infrastructure.
As a ?by-product? of solar power generation and export to Europe, huge amounts of sea water could
be desalinated in cogeneration to overcome the expected shortages of fresh water in the NA/NE
countries. Addi tional fresh water for drinking, industry and eventually for irrigation purposes constitutes
an indispensable precondition for further development. Thus, the proposed TREC project would
expand the perspectives for human and socio -economic development in the NA/NE countries.
5. World wide impact of the TREC project
The impact of TREC would extent far beyond the regions adjacent to the Mediterranean. Firstly, any
contribution to climate protection and to political stabilisation is clearly of worldwide benefit. Secondly,
the greatest energy resource worldwide is solar radiation. The technology of solar steam production for
power generation using concentrating collectors such as parabolic trough or flat mirror arrays (Fresnel
collector) is suitable for all arid and desert regions of the world, which also provide abundant free
space for their deployment. After cost reductions to the level of fossil fuels or even less will have been
achieved by the TREC project , solar collectors could also be used to produce clean power in North
and South America, North and South Africa, India, China and Aus tralia, i.e. for more than 90% of the
world?s population. Thus the TREC project could make wind and solar power an essential element of
timely climate stabilisation.
Together with the full spectrum of conversion technologies, significantly enhanced energy and
resource efficiency (as proposed e.g. in the ?Factor4? to ?Factor10? concepts), proper supply and
demand management, indirect solar energy resources, notably wind, hydropower and biomass along
with geothermal heat, clean, reliable, affordable and inexhaustible electricity could be supplied to
practically the entire world population. This objective could be achieved within a few decades, if
regarded as a global goal for humanity, and not as a matter of investment decisions by the present
fossil and nuclear energy industries.
6. Relation to global developmental goals
The proposed project directly corresponds with three out of the eight development goals proclaimed
for the new century in the UN Millennium Declaration by the world leaders: Goal 1 (eradicate extreme
hunger and poverty), of Goal 7 (ensure environmental stability, which includes timely climate
stabilisation) and Goal 8 (develop a global partnership for development).
Furthermore, the objectives of TREC are in line with the development goals for Africa as pro claimed by
NEPAD, the New Partnership for African Development, and the project itself coincides largely with a
model project proposed by the Scientific Advisory Board on Global Change to the German
government.
The global community has largely accepted that ensuring climate security requires action. The Kyoto
process is an indispensable means to give climate protection the quality of international law. However,
at present the quantitative achievements for greenhouse gas reductions are insufficient for climate
security. The large-scale use of renewable energies is required. The goal of TREC is to activate and to
accelerate significantly the use of renewable energies, ultimately to the extent that is needed to comply
with the requirements of the IPCC for climate security.
7. Summary on ?Why renewable energies ??
1. Global benefits from a rapid and progressive transition to renewable energies :
(1) Global climate stability is a precondition for sustainable development. Renewable energies
provide a timely gateway global greenhouse gas emissions reduction. According to the
assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global emissions
must begin to decrease at around 2030, to achieve global climate security.
(2) Sustainable development requires sufficient and low-cost energy supplies . Renewable
energies provide worldwide secure access to inexhaustible energy resources, some
already at low and all at further decreasing costs: energy security.
(3) Sustainable development is only possible with access to sufficient water. This is a worldwide
problem. Renewable energies provide, particularly in the arid regions, the additional
energy resources for needed large-scale water desalination projects.
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(4) Fossil fuel reserves are limited, in particular those of cheap oil. In the coming decades,
global energy shortages , rising prices , and risks of conflicts for resources undermining
international security are imminent. Renewable energies can mitigate such threats.
(5) Renewable energies allow elimination of nuclear power and the continuing dangers of
nuclear weapon proliferation: strategic security.
(6) Renewable energies require the use of a variety of resources and many technologies:
increased diversity for greater supply security.
(7) Economy and reliability of supply can be improved by inter-regional exchange: Enhanced
cooperation will lead to understanding and peace rather than to armed conflicts .
(8) Renewable energies will reduce the dependence on a few oil and gas exporting countries
and thus enhance geopolitical stability.
(9) Renewable energies allow preserving the scarce resources of oil and gas for their
important non-energetic applications in the future.
(10)Renewable energies can help to avoid the tremendous costs from climate change as by
damages from extreme weather events, by health impairments (more malaria?) and
safety provisions (higher dikes?).
(11)Renewable energies offer to countries in transition the chance of leapfrogging in development:
straight into renewable technologies instead of detouring through intermediate fossil
fuel capacities.
(12)Technology transfer ?North ? South? and clean energy transfer ?South ? North? will inter -
link and stimulate these economies: partnership for mutual development.
2. Regional benefits in the TREC project.
(1) Synergy effects from complementary resources: Europe has the technolog y, capital and
power consumption for large-scale CO2 reduction. NA/NE has superior wind and solar
energy conditions, vast regions for deployment, and low-cost labour for construction,
maintenance and operation.
(2) Political relations between European and Arab regions will profit by this cooperation.
(3) An inexhaustible and sustainable product from NA/NE for a large, expansive market in
EU.
(4) Support for development in NA/NE by co operative projects with Europe (?express train to
development?), as for engineering and production capacities in NA/NE countries .
(5) The use of renewable energies creates qualified job opportunities. This may reduce
emigration and brain drain from developing countries .
(6) Access to large-scale water desalination opportunities in NA/NE countries in line with their
growing demand.
(7) Cooperative projects among NA/NE countries
(8) Cost-effective, rapid compliance of Europe with greenhouse gas reduction requirements.
(9) Transfer of technological cost-reduction benefits achieved in NA/NE region to lesser
devel oped sub-Saharan countries.
8. Steps into the future
(1) Showcase the potential of renewable energies in initial projects to highlight the attractiveness
of the entire approach (bottom up support for the whole scheme)
(2) Devise a master plan for implementing TR EC (top down support for individual projects).
With endorsement of UNEP/UNDP, the proposed Trans -Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperative
for solar and wind energy should receive political and financial support from the EU and NEPAD to
create an addi tional instrument for proper climate stabilisation while fostering development in Africa
and the Near East.
9. A master plan for implementation of TREC
The TREC project is complex. It requires a close and structured cooperation of various players in a
region that calls for peaceful relations . A number of synchronised preconditions in the fields of politics
and economics must be developed jointly. This will not come about by accident. A master plan is
indispensable for a coordinated approach. A team of experts in renewable energies and in developTrans-
Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation TREC Paper for Arab Thought Forum and Club of Rome, Amman 2003
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mental matters, with members from Benin, Egypt, Germany, Jordan, Morocco and at the EU level has
been formed at the ini tiative of the German Association for the Club of Rome and of the Hamburg
Climate Protection Foun dation. Members from further countries are highly welcome.
In an initial step the TREC team has already assessed the technical means required and verified that
the physical resources are sufficient. In a second step it will be formulating a master plan, which will
show a way to such a Trans -Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation . The master plan is not
intended to be a prescription that has to be followed exactly, but rather to prove that there is at least
one realistic concept to bring the TREC into existence. It has the purpose of identifying open questions
and initiating work for their solutions. Also, it is intended to encourage and attract further supporters, to
become a platform for like minded individuals, to unleash synergies and to inform and to stimulate the
public.
Stakeholders