United NationsDepartment of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development
Goals
2

End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Targets and Indicators

Target

2.1

By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round

2.1.1

Prevalence of undernourishment

2.1.2

Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)

Target

2.2

By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons

2.2.1

Prevalence of stunting (height for age <-2 standard deviation from the median of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age

2.2.2

Prevalence of malnutrition (weight for height >+2 or <-2 standard deviation from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age, by type (wasting and overweight)

2.2.3

Prevalence of anaemia in women aged 15 to 49 years, by pregnancy status (percentage)

Target

2.3

By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment

2.3.1

Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming/pastoral/forestry enterprise size

2.3.2

Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status

Target

2.4

By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality

2.4.1

Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture

Target

2.5

By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed

2.5.1

Number of (a) plant and (b) animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium- or long-term conservation facilities

2.5.2

Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk of extinction

Target

2.a

Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries

2.a.1

The agriculture orientation index for government expenditures

2.a.2

Total official flows (official development assistance plus other official flows) to the agriculture sector

Target

2.b

Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round

2.b.1

Agricultural export subsidies

Target

2.c

Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility

2.c.1

Indicator of food price anomalies

Progress and Info

Between 2014 and the onset of the pandemic, the number of people going hungry and suffering from food insecurity had been gradually rising. The COVID-19 crisis has pushed those rising rates even higher. The war in Ukraine is further disrupting global food supply chains and creating the biggest global food crisis since the Second World War. The COVID-19 crisis has also exacerbated all forms of malnutrition, particularly in children.

In 2020, between 720 and 811 million persons worldwide were suffering from hunger, as many as 161 million more than in 2019. Also in 2020, over 30 per cent – a staggering 2.4 billion people – were moderately or severely food-insecure, lacking regular access to adequate food. This represents an increase of almost 320 million people in the course of just one year.

Globally, 149.2 million children under five years of age, or 22.0 per cent, were suffering from stunting (low height for age) in 20202, the proportion having decreased from 24.4 per cent in 2015. These numbers may become higher, however, owing to continued constraints on accessing nutritious diets and essential nutrition services during the pandemic, with the full impact possibly taking years to manifest itself. To achieve the target of a 5 per cent reduction in the number of stunted children by 2025, the current rate of decline of 2.1 per cent per year must double through global efforts to 3.9 per cent per year.

In 20202, wasting (low weight for height) affected 45.4 million children under five years of age (6.7 per cent) and overweeight affected 38.9 million children under five years of age (5.7 per cent). Wasting will be one of the conditions most impacted by COVID-19 pandemic in the short term; about 15 per cent more children than currently estimated may have been suffering from wasting, owing to deterioration in household wealth and disruptions in the availability and affordability of nutritious food and essential nutrition services. Childhood overweight may also be on the rise in some countries where unhealthy food replaced fresh, nutritious food and movement restrictions have constrained opportunities for physical activity for long periods of time.

In women, anaemia increases the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Since 2015, the prevalence of anaemia in women of reproductive age has been stagnant globally, with over half a billion women aged 15-49 years with anaemia in 2019, representing a prevalence of 29.9 per cent (29.6 per cent in non-pregnant women and 36.5 per cent in pregnant women).

In three quarters of the limited number of countries with data, small-scale food producers show an average annual income of less than half that of large-scale food producers. Similarly, the labor productivity of small-scale food producers continues to lag behind that of larger-scale producers. Among small-scale food producers, the income of women-headed production units is systematically lower than the income of those units headed by men, aounting in half of the countries to only 50-70 per cent of the income of the units headed by men.

The world is still far from maintaining the genetic diversity of farmed and domesticated animals, either in the field or in gene banks. For 62 per cent of local livestock breeds, the risk status remains unknown. Of the limited number of surveyed local livestock breeds, 72 per cent are deemed at risk of extinction. At the same time, for only 277 out of a global total of 7,704 local livestock breeds is there sufficient material in gene banks to reconstitute the breeds in case of extinction.

The share of countries burdened by high food prices, which had been relatively stable since 2016, rose sharply from 16 per cent in 2019 to 47 per cent in 2020, reflecting mainly trends in international markets.
International prices of food items soared in the second half of 2020, more than offsetting declines in the first five months of the year, supported by the increase in international demand for cereals, vegetable oils, sugar and dairy products associated with the easing of the restrictive measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic. In domestic markets, upward pressure was also exerted by rising costs of freight and agricultural inputs as well as logistical bottlenecks and market uncertainty.


The 2020 estimates do not account for the full impact of COVID-19 pandemic, as household survey data on child height and age were not collected in 2020 owing to physical distancing policies.

 

 

Source: Progress Towards Sustainable Development Goals- Report of the Secretary-General

For more information, please, check: https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2022/