United NationsDépartement des Affaires Économiques et Sociales Développement Durable

Suriname

REPUBLIC OF SURINAME
NATIONAL REPORT
in preparation of
THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
ON
SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS)
Paramaribo, July 2013
SURINAME REPORT ON SIDS CONFERENCE 2014
© Copyright July 2013
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
National Institute for Environment and Development in Suriname (NIMOS)
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Content
Content ............................................................................................................................................... I
List of Abbreviations ....................................................................................................................... II
Foreword ........................................................................................................................................ .IV
Executive Summary ......................................................................................................................... V
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 1
1 WORKING TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS: NATIONAL PRIORITIES AND KEY PRIORITY AREAS ........................................................................................ 2
1.1 BACKGROUND TO BPOA AND MSI ............................................................................................... 2
1.2 NATIONAL PRIORITIES FOR SURINAME ......................................................................................... 4
1.3 STATUS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL PRIORITIES ........................................................... 5
1.4 CHALLENGES ............................................................................................................................... 11
1.5 KEY PRIORITY AREAS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ......................................................... 12
2 THE WAY FORWARD FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AGENDA .............................................. 13
2.1 LINKING NATIONAL CONSULTATION PROCESS AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENDA . 13
2.2 CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SURINAME ................................................... 14
2.3 EMERGING ISSUES ....................................................................................................................... 15
2.3.1 Culture .................................................................................................................................... 15
2.3.2 Education ................................................................................................................................ 16
2.3.3 Population trends .................................................................................................................... 16
2.3.4 Health and well-being ............................................................................................................. 16
2.3.5 Poverty eradication ................................................................................................................. 16
2.3.6 Land use planning and management....................................................................................... 16
2.3.7 Coordination, collaboration and governance ......................................................................... 17
2.3.8 Regional and international cooperation ................................................................................. 17
2.3.9 Financing ................................................................................................................................ 17
Bibliography ................................................................................................................................... 18
List of Tables
TABLE 1 THEMATIC AREAS OF THE BPOA AND MSI .................................................................................... 2
II
List of Abbreviations
ACP
African, Caribbean and Pacific States
AdeKUS
Anton de Kom University of Suriname
AFOLU
Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land-use
ATM
Ministry of Labour, Technological Development and Environment
BPOA
Barbados Plan of Action
CARICOM
Caribbean Community
CBD
Convention on Biological Diversity
CCDA
Climate Compatible Development Agency
CPEC
Caribbean Regional Human Resources Development Programme for Economic Competitiveness
CSME
CARICOM Singe Market and Economy
ECLAC
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
EEZ
Exclusive Economic Zone
EU
European Union
FAO
Food and Agriculture Organization
FCPF
Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
FTAA
Free Trade of the Americas
GDP
Gross Domestic Product
IADB
Inter-American Development Bank
ILO
International Labour Organization
IMAC
Inter-Ministerial Advisory Committee
MDG
Millenium Development Goals
MIST
Management Information System for Tourism
MSI
Mauritius Strategy of Implementation
NCAP
Netherlands Climate Assistance Program
NCCR
National Coordination Centre for Disaster Management
NGO
Non-Government Organization
NIMOS
National Institute for Environment and Development in Suriname
NTFP
Non-Timber Forest Products
OAS
Organization of American States
ODA
Official Development Assistance
PAHO
Pan-American Health Organization
PET
Polyethylene terephthalate
POP
Persistent Organic Pollutant
REDD+
Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
RGD
Regional Health Services
RPP
Readiness Preparation Proposal
SBB
Foundation for Forest Management and Production Control
SDG
Sustainable Development Goal
SIDS
Small Island Developing States
SPS
National Planning Office
STEP
Small Tourism Enterprises Project
TED
Turtle Excluder Device
UCLA
University of California in Los Angeles
III
UN
United Nations
UNASUR
Unión de Naciones Suramericanas /Union of South American Nations
UNDAF
United Nations Development Assistance Framework
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Science and Cultural Organization
UNFCCC
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNFPA
United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF
United Nations Children’s Fund
UNCSD
United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development
WTO
World Trade Organization
IV
Foreword
The Government of the Republic Suriname has been engaged in the process of drafting a National Report for Suriname in preparation of The Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States (SIDS). By drafting this report, Suriname is honouring its commitments with regard to the implementation of the Barbados Plan of Action (BPOA) and the Mauritius Strategy (MSI). Suriname recognises the sustainable development challenges Small Island Developing States are currently facing. Hence, this report goes beyond the BPOA and MSI; it focuses on addressing the emerging issues and challenges of sustainable development; taken into consideration the UN post-2015 development agenda.
This National Report builds on existing progress reports and marks progress made to strengthen the national institutional framework in terms of coordination between sectors, and provides, where possible, an insight into the integration of sustainable development principles in the Development Plan 2012-2016.
Furthermore, the report describes the results of a consultation process with governmental and non-governmental stakeholders, which has been conducted in the period June – July, 2013.
On behalf of the Government, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, wishes to acknowledge and to thank all institutions that contributed to the completion of this report. Special recognition goes to the members of the National SIDS Steering Committee, the National Institute for Environment and Development in Suriname, the representatives of the relevant ministries, the Major Groups, as well as the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
This National Report will positively contribute towards coordinated, balanced, and integrated actions in achieving the sustainable development goals set into the BPOA and the MSI.
On behalf of the Government of the Republic of Suriname,
The Minister of Foreign Affairs,
Winston G. Lackin
V
Executive Summary
The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD, known as Rio+20) called for the convening in 2014 of a third international conference on Small Island Developing States (SIDS), recognizing the importance of coordinated, balanced and integrated actions to address the sustainable development challenges facing these states. Since the effectiveness of the conference depends on national level preparations that will feed into regional preparations, followed by an interregional, and finally the global process, preparations for the third international conference on SIDS need to take place in an effective, well-structured and participatory manner. The process will help the individual states and their respective regions to better prepare themselves in ways that are meaningful to their own sustainable development context, needs and experiences, and that result in tangible actions on the ground.
The preparation for the third international conference on Small Island Developing States (SIDS) should be viewed in the overall context of and linked to other relevant processes such as the discussions on the post-2015 development agenda, national development plans and reviews within each country. The outcomes of the national preparatory processes within a region will be synthesized into background discussion papers for the respective regional meetings.
The current document is the National Report for Suriname, produced in the period June – July 2013. The report outlines the following:
 progress to date and the remaining gaps in the implementation of the Barbados Plan of Action (BPOA) and the Mauritius Strategy on Implementation (MSI) building on, inter alia, existing reports and relevant processes;
 practical and pragmatic actions needed for the further implementation of the BPOA and MSI;
 new and emerging challenges and opportunities for the sustainable development of the country and ways and means to address them, including through the strengthening of collaborative partnerships between SIDS and the international community; challenges and opportunities for strengthening integration, inclusion, implementation and coherence in national planning;
 priorities for consideration, as appropriate, in the elaboration of the post-2015 UN development agenda.
The report builds on existing progress reports and shows progress made to strengthen the national institutional framework in terms of coordination between sectors, and provides, where possible, an insight into how well sustainable development principles have been integrated into development planning. Chapter 1 pinpoints national priorities which Suriname needs to focus on to achieve the goal of BPOA and MSI in the coming years. Chapter 2 mentions the key priority areas and challenges, and also touches on emerging issues that are likely to affect the prospects
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for sustainable development and which may pose risks to economic growth and development in Suriname and SIDS.
This national report is the result of a consultation process with Government and non-Government stakeholders. It serves as a resource in the process of further consultations, which will help stakeholders in Suriname to discuss and establish post-2015 sustainable development goals and identify the challenges the country may face in setting out to realize these goals.
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Introduction
Suriname joined SIDS in 1981, but only became active in 2002 in the process of the evaluation of the Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA). A National Assessment Report on the Barbados Programme of Action +10 Review was produced by Suriname in 2004.
Suriname’s MDG Progress Report 2009 was formulated to monitor progress and provide projections on what the situation was, regarding all relevant goals and how and when they might be achieved on a sustainable basis. The report provides an overview of data with regard to the Millennium Development Goals as of 1990 up to 2009.
In the study conducted in preparation of Suriname’s participation in the Rio+ 20 Conference1, a number of studies and reports were produced over the years, which have identified the challenges that Suriname faces in trying to achieve sustainable development. This report also gives a number of recommendations, the most important of which were that the government should formulate a vision and strategy on sustainable development, as well as an integrated approach to poverty eradication, build partnerships with and involve civil society and private business, take the lead, and strengthen and streamline structures needed to guide and monitor the process.
What follows is an overview of Suriname’s progress in the implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) and the Mauritius Strategy (MSI) in Suriname. The 2004 National Assessment Report on the Barbados Programme of Action +10 Review was taken as a baseline, but the fourteen priority areas of the BPOA are used here as a guide to report on progress.
1 Nationaal Rapport RIO+20, Een statusrapport over Duurzame Ontwikkeling in Suriname 2002-2011
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1 Working towards Sustainable Development Goals: National Priorities and Key rPriority Areas
1.1 Background to BPOA and MSI
The Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) serves as a blueprint for sustainable development of Small Island Developing States (SIDS). The Mauritius Strategy for the Implementation (MSI) of the BPOA addresses important elements that cover the sustainable development of SIDS, as well as actions that should be taken in specific strategic sectors. The Mauritius Strategy was adopted on the understanding that it would complement other existing frameworks, such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The integration in national plans and the monitoring thereof, however, has proved to be a challenge in most SIDS. The most difficult part of implementing a global framework seems to be to develop meaningful indicators of the main objectives and insert them into national development plans, strategic plans, plans of action, or local level work plans. The following table depicts the thematic areas laid down in the BPOA and Mauritius Strategy.
Table 1 Thematic areas of the BPOA and MSI
(From a presentation by Cedric Nelom, Acting Director of NIMOS, at stakeholder meeting of 19 June 2013)
Similar areas reflected in BPOA and MSI
Areas in BPOA that are excluded in MSI
Additional areas included in MSI
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The Future We Want, the outcome document of the 2012 Conference on Sustainable Development2 calls for a wide range of actions, among other things:
 launching a process to establish sustainable development goals;
 detailing how the green economy can be used as a tool to achieve sustainable development;
 strengthening the UN Environment Programme and establishing a new forum for sustainable development;
 promoting corporate sustainability reporting measures;
 taking steps to go beyond GDP to assess the well‐being of a country;
 developing a strategy for sustainable development financing;
 adopting a framework for tackling sustainable consumption and production;
 focusing on improving gender equality;
 stressing the need to engage civil society and incorporate science into policy; and
 recognizing the importance of voluntary commitments on sustainable development.
Paragraphs 178 through 1803 reaffirm the unique and particular vulnerabilities of Small Island Developing States (SIDS), ‘including their small size, remoteness, narrow resource and export base, and exposure to global environmental challenges and external economic shocks, including to a large range of impacts from climate change and potentially more frequent and intense natural disasters.’ The conference called for the convening in 2014 of a Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, stressing ‘the importance of coordinated, balanced and integrated actions to address the sustainable development challenges’.
The submission by CARICOM to the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20 Conference) emphasized the need for SIDS to identify priority areas that are crucial to their sustainable development process. CARICOM holds the view that the development and implementation of the green economy in the region must be as consistent with current sustainable development priorities as contained in Agenda 21, the JPOI, the BPoA, and the MSI, as well as the legal framework governing CARICOM, namely the revised treaty of Chaguaramas.
Speaking on behalf of the fourteen (14) Member States of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) represented at the United Nations during the High Level Review Meeting on the Implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States on 24th September 2010, the Honourable Dr. Kenneth Baugh, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Jamaica, pointed out six areas where action will be
2 Resolution 66/288. The Future We Want. Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations at its sixty-sixth session, 11 September 2012.
3 Idem
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required to empower SIDS to bridge the existing gaps and thereby increase their social and economic resilience, namely: development financing; debt sustainability; expansion and access to export markets; sustainable development; climate change mitigation and adaptation; and strengthening of institutional support.
In CARICOM’s official submission at the Rio+20 Conference, the following 10 key areas were listed as being crucial to achieving a green economy:
1. Agriculture and food security
2. Natural resources management, incl. fisheries management and oceans governance
3. Water resources management
4. Energy, incl. renewable energy and energy efficiency
5. Climate change and sea level rise
6. Sustainable consumption and production
7. Biodiversity
8. Sustainable land management
9. Waste management and chemicals management
10. Provision of the means of implementation (finance, technology transfer and capacity building)
Taking into account the world development framework for sustainable development provided by the MDGs, the framework of the Mauritius Strategy, the outcome of the Rio+20 Conference, and the CARICOM submission with the proposal to focus on a set of key priority areas, Suriname commenced consultations with stakeholders to reach a decision on a set of national key priorities, which will be incorporated in national development plans.
1.2 National Priorities for Suriname
On the basis of the frameworks and criteria formulated and used during the stakeholder consultation workshop on 19 June 2013, eight national priorities were initially identified for Suriname:
1. Agriculture and food security
2. Natural resources management, incl. fisheries management and oceans governance
3. Water resources management
4. Energy, incl. renewable energy and energy efficiency
5. Climate change and sea level rise
6. Biodiversity conservation
7. Waste management and chemicals management
8. Sustainable tourism
The following criteria were developed and used to arrive at the choice of these national priorities:
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 The priorities identified should be in line with those proposed by CARICOM at the Rio+20 Conference.
 The priorities should be relevant to or in line with the development vision of Suriname, as laid down in the 2012 – 2016 National Development Plan.
 Relevant documentation, such as national policy documents, strategies and plans of action should be available or in the process of design
 The challenges and gaps pertaining to the priorities need to be addressed urgently through a short-term approach (1-5 years).
Sustainable development is people-centred and ultimately aims at achieving human well-being. A number of important themes, therefore, also need to be addressed as fully integrated cross-cutting themes when policies, strategies and plans of action in the framework of sustainable development are formulated in the coming years:
 Poverty eradication
 Gender equality (through gender mainstreaming)
 Health equity (the strengthening of health systems)
 Education and awareness (to strengthen and maintain human capital base)
 Finance, technology transfer and capacity building
1.3 Status and implementation of national priorities
A brief overview of the status and implementation in Suriname with respect to each of the national priorities identified during the consultation workshop on 19 June 2013, is given below. The relevant descriptions have been taken from the available reports, policy document, plans of action, etc. mentioned in the heading of each priority area.
1.3.1 Agriculture and food security
The agricultural sector was identified as a priority in the Government Policy Statement 2010-2015. In April 2011 the Ministry of Agriculture presented its policy document 2010-2015 (Beleidsnota 2010-2015) as a roadmap for the agricultural sector. A total of 8 white papers were produced, which focus on the sub-sectors rice, banana, horticulture, livestock, fisheries, the interior development and documents on agribusiness, and food safety.
The agriculture policy document has 7 main objectives:
 achieve and ensure food security for the entire population Suriname
 guarantee the agricultural health and food safety
 develop a sustainable agricultural sector
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 develop the agricultural sector to be the food producer and food supplier of the Caribbean
 increase the agricultural sector contribution to the national economy
 establish the institutional and infrastructural conditions for the sustainable development of the agricultural sector
 manage the preconditions and risks in implementing the agricultural policy framework.
1.3.2 Natural resources management, incl. fisheries management and oceans governance
The white paper on the Suriname fishing industry was prepared in two volumes. Volume 1: Subsector Fisheries 2012 -2016 sets out the overall policy for the subsector; Volume 2: White paper “Aquaculture 2012 -2016” outlined the aquaculture policy for Suriname.
The subsector fisheries has a number of urgent problems and challenges, such as outdated legislation, absence of a Fisheries Management Plan (FMP), the absence of an adequate control and monitoring system of the marine resources, a low organizational level within the sub-sector and limited value added of the exported products. In addition, the persistent dominance of foreigners in the sector and the shortage of highly skilled and technical expertise are also major concerns. Moreover, for decades there has been a downward trend in production, in particular in shrimp trawling activities. Other challenges relate to achieving growth and development.
In the framework of sustainable management and food security, the following actions are considered top priorities:
 update and implement the Fisheries Management Plan
 finalize, endorse and enact the new fisheries legislation
 conclude a partnership agreement with the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Justice and Police regarding the Coast Guard and on the development of a Monitoring, Control and Surveillance plan
 reorganize the fishing industry and institutional strengthening of the fisheries sector, targeting public and private sector organizations and NGO’;
 upgrade the data collection system and training of staff to manage the system
 continue with by-catch reduction from trawl fishing activities.
1.3.3 Water resources management
Suriname ranks 6th on the World Water Council listing of countries with superfluous water resources. A study Naar een geïntegreerd waterbeheer in Suriname (towards integrated water management in Suriname), was carried out for the World Wildlife Fund Guianas4 (2011). There
4 Naar een geïntegreeerd waterbeheer Suriname (Towards integrated water management in Suriname)
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is no adequate water policy and insufficient solid data. The country does have an old water supply system in and around the capital, dating from 1933.
According to the study, the production of surface and sub-soil water in Suriname, solely on the basis of annual precipitation, is around 117 km3. This amounts to an average of 641,000 litters of water per capita. Based on an annual population growth of 3% and a decrease of 2mm of rain per year while all other parameters remain the same, it has been calculated5 that the availability of water in 2050 will have decreased by 60% and by 2100 even by over 99%. The most serious challenges are currently the lack of an adequate water policy, the lack of an umbrella law that regulates integrated management of water resources, and the lack of solid research data.
According to the 2nd national communication to UNFCCC6, Suriname’s main freshwater source is the abundant annual rainfall. Seven main rivers annually convey about 4,800 m3/sec of fresh water into the Atlantic Ocean, i.e. approximately 30% of the annual rainfall. The Marowijne and the Corantijn Rivers contribute to 70% of the total discharge.
The coastal area plays an important role in the maintenance of drinking water reserves, because freshwater aquifers are available in this area, which are the main source of potable water for people living here, and especially in and around the capital of Paramaribo. Of all the aquifers only the Zanderij aquifer is subjected to recharge, whereby rainfall in the savanna belt percolates in into the ground and replenishing this aquifer.
1.3.4 Energy, incl. renewable energy and energy efficiency
Suriname has produced a Draft National Energy Policy for 2013-20337. It provides the framework to achieve the country’s energy goals and will consolidate Surinamese energy policy, which has been outlined in various documents, including the ‘2000 Energy Master Plan’ and the report ‘Renewable energy potential and business opportunities in Suriname’. The implementation framework will include energy strategies and key actions up to 2033; a new action plan will be prepared every three years (i.e. 7 action plans up to 2033).
The most significant source of energy is hydro-electricity (currently supplying 95% of the country’s electricity generation requirements), while 26% of the total energy supply is generated through the hydropower system at Afobaka. Approximately 5% of Suriname's electricity production is through small power generators, which use diesel fuel, in remote interior areas. Other sources of renewable energy used in Suriname include solar, biomass and wind energy. The national electrification rate is 85%, with 79% of the population connected to the national
5 Dr. Sieuwnath Naipal PhD during his acceptance speech as a professor of natural sciences at the Anton de Kom University of Suriname. Quoted in Naar een geïntegreeerd waterbeheer Suriname
6 Second National Communication to UNFCCC.
7 Information from: Suriname’s Energy Policy (Draft), 2013 - 2033
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grid and 6%, which live in the Hinterland, reliant on diesel unit installed by the Department for Rural Energy.
Suriname’s energy management framework comprises a long-term vision, five national goals and a set of strategies to move the energy sector to one that is modern, affordable to the people of Suriname and enables Suriname to become an example of wide-scale renewable energy penetration as part of its movement towards a green and sustainable economy.
1.3.5 Climate change and sea level rise
Suriname submitted an Initial National Communication to UNFCCC and has also completed the formulation of the Second National Communication to UNFCCC, which is expected to be submitted before the end of this year. There is no climate change policy document, but Suriname has chosen to submit a Readiness Project Proposal to the FCPF and to use the REDD+ structures described in that document for the planning process for sustainable development in Suriname. The Final RPP was submitted in June 2013.
Suriname has a tropical climate with abundant rainfall, a uniform temperature, and high humidity. Average daily temperature in the coastal region is 27.40 Celsius, with a daily variation of 5°C. Annual variation of the average temperature is 2-3°C. The interior has relatively similar figures, although variation of daily temperatures can be larger (10-12°C).
Considering regional and global changes, it is expected that with the rise of the sea level a shift of the coastal line might occur. A 50 cm rise of the water depth in front of the coastline will, together with changes in wind pattern and wind intensity, result in intensified wave attacks on the shoreline, land loss, owing to this inundation and flooding, salinization and loss of biodiversity of the immediate coast. The frequency of storm surge at a given height will increase. Winds will be stronger than what they are now owing to the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere and the rise in temperature, which is directly connected to storm activity. Marshes within the coastal wetlands are likely to remain or may even grow in aerial extent in the face of sea level rise. They may alter as a result of increased water logging, changes in salinity and even biota.
Carbon dioxide accounts for the greatest percentage of emitted GHGs in Suriname. Total GHG emissions for the inventory year 2008 equal 6,365.75 CO2 eq. The energy sector, with an emission of 3,788.15 CO2, is the largest GHG source, contributing over 59% of the total GHG emission. Parts of the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land-use (AFOLU) sector act as a sink, with an absorption of -8,243.05Gg of CO2 eq, making Suriname a net sink for CO2 (-1,883.09Gg CO2 eq). In 2007, Suriname ranked #86 in terms of CO2 emissions with per capita emissions of 4.8 metric tons of CO28.
8 National Energy Policy (Draft) 2013 – 2033, p.3/4
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1.3.6 Biodiversity
Suriname formulated a National Biodiversity Strategy in 2006 and a National Biodiversity Action Plan for the period 2012 – 2016. The country has also prepared four National Reports to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity since it signed the Convention in 1992 and ratified it in 1996. The last of these progress reports dates from October 2012.
The National Biodiversity Strategy (NBS) sets out the national vision, goals and strategic direction in order to conserve, protect and sustainably use our rich biological diversity and biological resources and distribution. It serves as a framework for the Biodiversity Action Plan for 2012 – 2016, which identifies activities, tasks and expected outcomes. The NBS is based on strengths and assets in our natural, social, institutional and infrastructure environment, since these serve as the basis for an achievable National Biodiversity Strategy. A vision statement of the country’s Biodiversity Strategy was developed, in which the commitment of the people of Suriname is reflected to value and protect the national biodiversity.
The strategic direction is framed by several principles, including:
Incorporation of biodiversity, cultural and nature conservation measures and values into national development plans and sector plans;
Creation of financial and human resources to achieve and sustain the national vision;
Improvement of the capacity of people to value biodiversity socially and economically and to understand the benefits of all forms of biodiversity;
Establishment of an educational system that benefits from awareness on biodiversity issues.
The Biodiversity National Plan of Action 2012 – 2016 has eight areas of interest:
 Conservation of biodiversity
 Sustainable use of biodiversity
 Regulated access to genetic material and associated knowledge, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits
 Knowledge acquisition through research and monitoring
 Capacity building
 Raising awareness and empowerment through education and communication
 Cooperation at local and international level
 Sustainable financing
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1.3.7 Waste management and chemicals management
Suriname has started the process to ratify the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. A National Implementation Plan on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and an updated Chemicals Profile were produced in 2011 with UNDP assistance. The NIP aims at the management and phase out of POPs in Suriname, describes the background of the issues and the current situation of POPs substances, which is the baseline inventory. The NIP also details all strategies and actions which need to be undertaken in order to meet the obligations of the Stockholm Convention. A National Assessment Report on Waste Management was drawn up in 2013. This Report gives recommendations to improve waste management, and establishes a monitoring and evaluation mechanism with identified indicators. Waste management regulation is contained in sector-specific legislation. The country has neither a waste management policy nor plan.
Waste management in Suriname is in a developmental stage, and currently, existing systems can hardly cope with the waste generated. There is little or no regulation for the operations of the country’s dumps. The open dump operates at low level of efficiency and poses health and environmental risks to persons entering and operating within the facility and neighbouring community. Illegal dumping and littering along roadsides and in open waters continues to be a problem.
At present, Suriname does not have a dedicated facility to store or dispose of hazardous waste. The problem is often exacerbated because of the small quantities of many types of hazardous waste. Currently, medical waste is burned at 2 locations in Paramaribo. Both facilities are fully operational. Furthermore, the Ministry of Health is working on a central medical waste processing plant to accommodate all the healthcare facilities in and around Paramaribo. This plant will be situated away from populated areas to reduce healthcare risk which can be caused by waste incineration. It is estimated that household waste generated ranges from 0.3 kilogram’s per capita per day in the rural areas to 0.5 kilograms per capita per day for Paramaribo.
The imports of pesticides (primarily for the agricultural sector and household use) have increased and the use of pesticides doubled between 2005 and 2009. Although Suriname is not a producer of pesticides, almost 10 % of the imported pesticides are exported. There are not enough systems in place to sufficiently guide the safe use of pesticides. In general, there is insufficient dissemination of risk-related information to transportation companies, salespersons and users. Suppliers and users are not familiar with processes of risk management. The mixing of pesticides is generally practiced without knowledge of the specific risks and impacts to human health. Pesticides are stored with the wholesalers and users. The majority of the identified obsolete pesticides and POPs pesticides are stored inadequately.
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1.3.8 Sustainable tourism
There is no formulated tourism policy, but the government has made the development of sustainable tourism a priority. A value chain analysis of the tourism sector was completed in 2011 as the first step of the Government’s request to develop a tourism plan of action. In early 2012 the Foundation for Tourism n Suriname (STS) hired a professional marketing company to produce a tourism marketing plan.
After the 1.6 million ha Central Suriname Nature Reserve and the city of Paramaribo became UNESCO World Heritage sites, a number of studies and reports on the tourism sector were produced, new tourism products were identified and developed, and new sites, especially in the hinterland of Suriname, were developed. Most attention was given to the development of nature tourism and ecotourism.
The Ministry of Transport, Communication and Tourism requested Conservation International Suriname’s support to develop a tourism plan of action. A value chain analysis of the tourism sector9 was produced in 2011 by the UCLA Anderson School of Management. The Foundation for Tourism in Suriname (STS) was the counterpart for this project, and responsible for involving the tourism sector stakeholders. The document analyses the tourism sector and the potential of the market for Suriname. The value chain analysis was the first step towards the tourism plan of action.
1.4 Challenges
Sustainable development is about integrating sectors that have so far been treated as independent and separate development components. There are a number of challenges to be faced as an integrated sustainable development vision, strategy and programme are formulated in Suriname, including the following:
Integrating cross-cutting thematic areas into the key priority areas requires a completely different set of capacities, knowledge and skills among decision-makers, Government technical staff, and partners from the private sector and NGOs.
There are rapid changes in the technology required and used to support and implement a sustainable development programme. Suriname has not formulated a vision or strategy on
9 This study was implemented as part of a worldwide agreement between the UCLA Anderson School of Management and Conservation International to utilize the expertise of advanced students in field activities, especially when in-country capacity for such studies was low. STS hired an international marketing bureau to develop a tourism marketing plan for Suriname, which would also be part of the tourism plan of action. The first stakeholder meetings were held, but the further development of the tourism plan of action and the marketing plan are currently on hold.
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technological development yet, and this is essential if decisions are to be taken for the sustainable path forward.
The capacities required to develop clear indicators to measure progress in complicated, integrated priority areas are scarce and/or lacking in country on the short term.
The current national planning system of Suriname needs to be adjusted, and aligned with the district decentralization programme this being implemented, so that efficient and adequate planning, decision-making, implementation and fundraising at district and local levels can take place.
Funding needs to be available for the continuous process of planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation at all levels (international, regional, national, district, local).
1.5 Key Priority Areas for Sustainable Development
In the stakeholder workshop of 24 July 2013, discussions focused on the actual key priority areas to sustainable development. Participants retained the focus more or less on the national priorities that had already been identified. It should be noted that the cross-cutting themes identified above (poverty eradication; gender equality; health equity; education and awareness; financing, technology transfer and capacity building) were so still considered important.
Five key priority areas:
1. Agriculture and food security
2. Energy, incl. renewable energy and energy efficiency
3. Natural resources management (including fisheries management, oceans governance, water resources and biodiversity conservation)
4. Climate change and sea level rise
5. Waste management and chemicals management
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2 The Way Forward for the Development Agenda
2.1 Linking national consultation process and international development agenda
During the Rio+20 Conference, a single development agenda was promoted. However, a lot of studies and analyses are still needed before a post-2015 development agenda can be formulated. As we continue to discuss and prepare for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), we need to ponder how the current MDGs can still be integrated, because we will not have been able to attain all of these goals by 2015. The post-2015 development agenda also needs to take into account the special situation of middle-income countries like Suriname, as well as the vulnerable position of Small Island Developing States (SIDS).
In the process of planning towards the post-2015 development agenda in Suriname, the people participating in the consultations first need to fully understand the intricacies of dealing with international and national interests, as well as what an integrated approach to national sustainable development programmes meant. A good understanding of the dynamics and content at the national level was regarded as the first step towards comprehending the development agenda at the world level. It is only after this process has been completed that discussions on a post-2015 development agenda can commence and generate realistic results.
Suriname has not formulated a clear, long-term vision on national sustainable development. Instead, five-year development plans are produced, which coincide with an administration period of each new government coming to office after general elections. The current government has chosen for a low-carbon development strategy with the establishment of the Climate Compatible Development Agency and the decision to set up a Climate Compatible Development Unit in the office of the President. But without a clear vision on sustainable development, the formulation of such a strategy will remain a difficult task.
The stakeholder workshop of 19 June 2013 brought together representatives of major groups10 to discuss the national report on SIDS and identify key priority areas for the post-2015 sustainable development goals (SDGs). For many of the major group representatives, this workshop was the first time they had had the opportunity to discuss issues of sustainable development. Moreover, this type of process was new to many of them. The emphasis was, therefore, on first having the major groups representatives understand the concept of sustainable development and the intricacies of bringing national and international priorities in line with one another. Participants discussed and agreed upon national key priority areas for Suriname, in the framework of SIDS. At the end of the day, they had chosen 7 national key priorities and had identified challenges and emerging issues for Suriname.
10 The nine major groups were formed in preparation of the Rio+20 conference
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The next step will be a meeting to introduce and discuss the Caribbean views and key priority areas, which are expected to be discussed at the SIDS meeting in early July in Jamaica. This will lead to a better understanding of Caribbean SIDS issues, as well as a better comprehension of the international development agenda and the choice of sustainable development goals (SDGs) for the post-2015 period. At the end of that meeting, participants will not only be able to understand Caribbean SIDS priority areas, but most likely be able to identify five key priority areas and a number of emerging issues which they think Suriname should present at the international forum on the post-2015 development agenda.
2.2 Challenges to sustainable development in Suriname
Many reports in the past have identified the challenges to sustainable development, which Suriname faces. Some of these challenges are listed below11, and some of them are most likely to be the same for the Caribbean SIDS:
 Clear policies are lacking, and without these it is difficult to formulate goals and plans, and monitor implementation or progress towards attaining goals.
 Decision-makers need to understand that sustainable and equitable development is a process with a long-term vision and goals, which require patience and investments in time and money.
 There is no clear understanding among decision-makers of sustainable development and how to achieve the ultimate goal of human well-being.
 Actions and decisions which are required in order to develop an integrated development agenda are hampered by a lack of legislation and outdated legislation.
 Collaboration and integration of development efforts are needed at all levels – international, national, and local.
 Local authorities need to be given more authority in the management of land, water and waste. Such decentralization, together with good governance structures that ensure situational leadership at the local level and link to nationally formulated policies, will have a better chance of developing collaborative local partnerships, where control mechanisms can more easily be applied.
 There is a shortage of expertise and limited research capacity in the country, which makes it difficult to fully understand the underlying issues of sustainable development. With the sole university offering few master level courses, the research capacity esp. in the necessary fields that underpin the key priority areas, is a matter of grave concern. The courses, moreover, need to be adjusted to the capacity needs for sustainable development, while the content of the courses needs to be streamlined to future needs.
11 The challenges listed were compiled from what was discussed and reported during the stakeholder meeting of 19 June 2013, as well as in the documents studied (see reference list).
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 There are institutional and financial constraints to support sustainable development programmes:
o Social institutions that can support the creative effort are weak due to a lack of funding and shortage in personnel.
o The government’s financial capability of funding essential infrastructure, such as utilities (water and electricity), especially in the remote areas, is weak.
o Healthcare services and health insurance are not optimal due to a shortage of specialists, nurses and midwives, facilities and equipment. There is also a lack of funding for special health programs and public health threats associated with the water supply and sanitation.
2.3 Emerging Issues
Although discussions during the consultations focused on the situation of Suriname, the emerging issues identified may also hold good for the other Caribbean SIDS. In the second step of the consultation process, the national emerging issues were be matched with the information coming from the Jamaica meeting, after which the emerging issues for the global sustainable development agenda should be formulated.
Nine emerging issues were identified for Suriname. They are given below in random order of importance.
2.3.1 Culture
Culture can be viewed as heritage, which is part of human cultural diversity, analogous to biodiversity. It can also be viewed as the sum of human behaviour that is learnt rather than genetically inherited, and which helps us to survive as a species. Cultures live, and so develop and change, but any unwarranted loss of cultural knowledge diminishes human resilience. We adapt to changing circumstances through the adaptive strength of our cultures. The rate at which human cultures adapt ideally matches the pace of environmental change. Cultural practices that have served small communities for centuries may prove maladaptive when rising seas threaten livelihoods and make resources become scarcer. Cultural practices that relate to such challenges include gender roles, kinship patterns, community structure, and other relations of important power inequalities.
Gender infuses human cultures, and is reflected in such things as patriarchal versus matriarchal societies, the organization of sexuality, the roles attributed to women and men, and much more. Women are affected differently than men by environmental challenges, generally taking more of the brunt because of their role in food security and family organization. Gender also underlies other community relations, such as traditional governance systems, where authority and participation is different according to one’s gender category. Here too cultural practices determine the way women, the elderly and the young, i.e. the less powerful, are able to respond to change, and thus how a society will adapt and survive as an entity in the long run.
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2.3.2 Education
Sustainable development is people-centred, and the different issues to be addressed to achieve sustainable development are not only interconnected, but are becoming increasingly complicated. Our education system needs to ensure that knowledge and skills are learned in an integrated and holistic manner, instead of learning concepts in separate school subjects. This will encourage creative thinking and an integrated approach to problem-solving.
2.3.3 Population trends
The census provides population data, but what are also needed are in-depth studies to understand migration and urbanization trends, as well as age and gender. These studies will yield the information and analyses required to better assess population trends and vulnerabilities, without which it is difficult to develop integrated policies and plan for public services, educational facilities, health services, and climate change adaptation.
2.3.4 Health and well-being
Trends and prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases get most attention, but the operations and availability of current healthcare services also need to be studies to know whether they are equipped to support the challenges as a result of the impact of climate change (disasters, new diseases) and what institutional strengthening is needed, and what (new) capacities need to be built.
2.3.5 Poverty eradication
Since poverty eradication is part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), there needs to be a better understanding of poverty and social displacement. There is an urgent need for the formulation of a national definition of poverty, and for poverty studies, data collection and analysis, national and local-level social and economic studies, so as to set a baseline by which a poverty eradication programme can be developed and monitored. The stakeholder workshops emphasized the need for sustainable jobs, good education, and improved healthcare. Training, skills building, counselling and the involvement of communities in their own development path were also identified as essential components of a poverty eradication programme.
2.3.6 Land use planning and management
An effective and efficient land use planning and management system is essential. It is a precondition to all planning that involves climate change adaptation, the management of resources, waste and chemicals, conservation of ecosystems services and biodiversity. It underpins climate change adaptation and mitigation, and decision-making about housing, health, industrial developments, and the issuing of land and concessions for different economic activities, such as mining, logging, community forests. It can also reveal an angle from which to approach the land rights issue together with the Indigenous and Maroon
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people, while it makes visible and could help to solve problems relating to ownership of abandoned former plantations in the coastal area, so that all land resources can more effectively be used.
2.3.7 Coordination, collaboration and governance
In view of the interconnectedness of all development areas, building effective partnerships is essential to mobilize people to participate and to keep them motivated. In this process, it is essential to set aside personal interests and focus on the interests of all. Efficient and transparent governance structures need to be set up to handle and coordinate these intricate networks. Economic and political governance is indeed an emerging issue, not only in Suriname. The necessary efficiencies need to be included into processes to move forward to implementation. This is about coordination, frameworks, collaboration and the internal systems that help to move from articulation of policy through implementation.
2.3.8 Regional and international cooperation
The interplay of international, regional and national interests is not generally understood in Suriname. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge and capacities to follow-through to develop national policies and development plans, which integrate what has been agreed upon at international fora. At the local level, authorities and community-based organizations are usually not involved in consultation processes or interactions, and do not understand issues that are being discussed at the international and national levels. The capacities required include knowledge and skills to interpret international issues to national goals, and to interpret national goals into the reality of communities, so that concrete projects and activities can be formulated.
2.3.9 Financing
Guaranteed and sufficient funding will be required to ensure the planning and implementation of programmes which will lead to sustainable development. Such programmes are relatively long, since they generally involve changing people’s traditional perceptions of development issues, implementing integrated approaches, involving people and communities in all stages of planning and implementation, and providing continuous monitoring and feedback to adjust implementation. If there is no financial commitment to support the process, the final result will not be attained.
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Bibliography
Documents:
Actieprogramma Integraal kinder- en adolescentenbeleid (Plan of Action for Integral Children’s and Youth Policy) 2012 – 2016. (forthcoming)
Disaster Management in Suriname: The Level of Preparedness and Mitigation. Caitlin Abigail Karijokromo. Paramaribo: Lim A Po Institute, 2011
Environmental and Social Analysis/ Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESA/ESMF), Suriname Water Supply Infrastructure Rehabilitation (SU-L1018), 2010
Final National Assessment Report Barbados Programme of Action + 10 Review. Paramaribo: 2004.
Government of Suriname MDG Progress Report 2009. Paramaribo: Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation, November 2009
Naar een geïntegreeerd waterbeheer Suriname (Towards an integrated water policy for Suriname). Nancy del Prado, Paramaribo: WWF Guianas, 2011
Nationaal Milieu Beleidsplan (Suriname’s National Environmental Policy Plan) 2012-2016. Ministry of Labour, Technological Development and Environment.
Nationaal Rapport Rio+20, Een statusrapport over Duurzame Ontwikkeling in Suriname (National Report Rio+20, A status report on sustainable development in Suriname) 2002-2011 (forthcoming)
National Assessment Report on the Barbados Programme of Action +10 Review. Paramaribo: 2004
Caribbean Regional Report for the Five-Year Review of the Mauritius Strategy for Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean. (Preliminary Draft), 2010
Preliminary results of the 8th census in Suriname. Paramaribo: General Statistics Office, 2012
Promoting Sustainable Economic Development with Sustainable Tourism. A Value Chain Analysis. UCLA Anderson School of Management in collaboration with Conservation International, 2011
Readiness Preparation Proposal (RPP) for Suriname, version 6, Final Draft. Submitted to the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF), June 2013
Resolution 66/288, The Future We Want. Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations at its sixty-sixth session, 2012
Review of Progress Made in Addressing Vulnerabilities of Small Islands Developing States through Implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for Further Implementation (MSI) of the Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA). Suriname Strategy, National Assessment Report, Sectoral Area: Waste Management. L.F. Zuilen, Paramaribo: 2013 (Draft)
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Strengthening of Planning and Executive Capacity of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Public Housing in Suriname. Assessment Report of 2005-2010. Social Policy. UNDP, Ministry of Social Affairs, and ESD International Consulting. Paramaribo: 2010
Suriname Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4). UNICEF, Ministry of Social Affairs and, General Statistics Bureau. Paramaribo: 2010
Suriname Water Supply Master Plan, Final Report, Volume 1 – Summary. IADB, Government of Suriname, and Suriname Water Supply Company. Paramaribo: 2011
Suriname’s Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2012
Suriname’s Initial Communication to UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). GEF, UNDP, Ministry of Labour, Technological Development and Environment, and NIMOS, Paramaribo: 2005
Suriname’s National Energy Policy (Draft), 2013 – 2033.
Suriname’s National Implementation Plan to the Stockholm Convention. Ministry of Labour, Technologic Development and Environment, Paramaribo: 2011
Suriname’s Second National Communication to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Ministry of Labour, Technological Development and Environment (to be submitted)
The MDGs, Rio+20 The SDGs, Post-2015 Barbados+20 & Caribbean SIDS (a Power Point presentation) by H. Elizabeth Thompson, Former Assistant Secretary-General-United Nations and Executive Coordinator-UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20).
Updated Chemical Profile, Republic of Suriname, GEF, UNPD, and Ministry of Labour, technological Development and Environment. Paramaribo: 2011
White Paper “Subsector Fisheries 2012 -2016”, FAO Project TCP/SUR/3301 (1), Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries. Paramaribo: 2011
Websites:
http://www.cbvs.sr/slider/234-suriname-s-macroeconomic-outlook-rated-po…
http://www.cbvs.sr/publications/cbvs-reports/semi-annual-reports
http://www.cbvs.sr/images/content/statistieken/Table21.pdf
http://www.cbvs.sr/images/content/statistieken/Table0023.pdf
http://www.sidsnet.org/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qsgUa4EZaBI
http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/s282_e.pdf
http://atm.gov.sr/media/784265/nbap_suriname_nl.pdf
http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/sr/sr-nbsap-v2-en.pdf
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